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October 2018

Explain the dynamics between Chinese government and popular nationalism in the post- Tiananmen era.

Explain the dynamics between Chinese government and popular nationalism in the post- Tiananmen era. 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

1) Please Explain the dynamics between Chinese government and popular nationalism in the post- Tiananmen era. Use examples from the course material to illustrate your points. ( Hint: Osnos and Zheng readings)

2) You are chatting with a friend, Ferris Wheel, over a coffee at Starbucks. Your friend says, ” China is an authoritarian state. The party-state exercises absolute control over society and does not allow any expressions of public opinion.” Do you agree with this comment? Or do you see a more complex and nuanced picture when it comes to the relationship between the Chinese government and the Chinese public? Please use examples to illustrate points. (Hint: Osnos and Sharipo).

2 short Essays should be based on historical evidence drawn from the course material ( readings).




How well do IR’s main theories explain the structure and functioning of IOs?

How well do IR’s main theories explain the structure and functioning of IOs? 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

QUESTION: How well do IR’s main theories explain the structure and functioning of IOs?

In terms of functioning, you can consider any of the following: compliance, policies and output,
and/or effectiveness. In terms of structure, you can consider any of the following: the obligations
associated with an IO, its mandate or core objectives, and the rules governing the IO. You do not
need to incorporate all of these
General Essay Writing Advice
• Plan your essay thoroughly before you begin to write. Break the question down into its
different elements where possible. Conduct serious research, starting with the assigned
and recommended readings before going (much) further, and think critically about your
findings. The essay should explain your academic view on the topic in such a way that is
supported by appropriate evidence and a reasoned argument. It should not be a
summary of other peoples’ work. Ensure that you do not throw marks away needlessly
on structure and style, take care with spellings and grammar and references (consider
using referencing software, such as Zotero). Again, I will enthusiastically provide
assistance if approached so please do make use of my office hours – particularly in the
run-up to this essay!
Two pieces of additional advice:
• Never think a question is too basic or stupid: the worst you can do is NOT ask a
question you’re stuck with;
• And, never hesitate to strike out in innovative or intellectually adventurous directions if
that is where your reading and thinking takes you – just make sure to consult with me
where possible so that I can help guide your research in an appropriate direction for the
course assessment criteria.
Score needed
First Class 70-79
Written work will be of a very high standard throughout. It will demonstrate thorough research
and contain analysis of a wide range of academic sources. It will critically engage with
competing academic perspectives within a coherent and well argued framework. There will be
very few grammatical or factual errors. Referencing should be flawless.
• Actor: States are the key actors, rational
– Foremost concern is their survival
• Structure: Anarchy—no authority above the state
Maximize power
• Advantage: protect yourself and scare off potential aggressors
• Disadvantage: makes others afraid
• they expand their power
• Security dilemma: by becoming more powerful, you potentially become less secure.
• IOs: • Instruments of the powerful!
• Designed to lock-in distribution of power
• Effective locking in power, but not necessarily on other policy objectives – It’s self-help world!
Struggle for power
Logic of consequences: maximize benefits while minimizing costs
Think of the UNSC
Explaining the creation of International organisations
• Rare occurrence
• Cooperation is typically inefficient because it provides benefits to others
• At times, however, it can be worth it and rational
1. Coordination can prevent a mutually undesirable outcome
• E.g., telecommunications, air navigation)
2. Hegemon (either regional or global) use to impose preferences on others and lock in
distribution of power
• IMF, World Bank
3. To bandwagon or balance against other powers: better than the alternative
(See Krasner 1991, Grieco 1990, Gruber 2000)
Textbooks and Useful Companion Texts
• Hurd, Ian (2018). International Organizations. 3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(Hurd 2018). PAGE (19-21)
• Rittberger, Volker, Zangl, Bernhard, and Kruck, Andreas (2012) International Organization.
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (Rittberger, Zangl, and Kruck 2012).
o PAGE (15-18)
• Alan Collins (ed.) (2016), Contemporary Security Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press) – Chapter
2 (Realism)
Additional reading
• For a comprehensive overview of IR theories see: Dunne, Timothy, Kurki, Milja, and Smith, Steve (eds.)
(2016) International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity. 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
Chapter 2, 3, 4, 5, and 9.
• For a short overview of core IR theories see: Snyder, Jack (2004) ‘One World, Rival Theories’, Foreign
Policy, 145 (November/ December), pp. 52-62.
• Mearsheimer, John (1994) ‘The False promise of international institutions’, International Security, 19(3),
pp. 5-49.
• Barnett, Michael and Finnemore, Martha (2004) Rules for the World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press,
Chapter 1 and 2.
• Brooks, S. and Wohlforth, W. (2008). World out of balance. Princeton: Princeton University Press, p.21.
• Gruber, L. (2000). Ruling the world. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
• Gilpin, R. (1981) War and change in world politics. [electronic book]. Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1981
• barry, b., Gheciu, A. and Wohlforth, W. (n.d.). The Oxford Handbook of International Security. oxford
university press.
• Guzman, A. T. (2008) How international law works. [electronic book] : a rational choice theory. New
York : Oxford University Press, 2008
• Peter Spiro,”what happen to the ‘new sovereigntism’?” foreign affairs, July 27, 2004




legally advise the new Deltazeta’s government in relation to public international law. You have just now received the following email from the Deltazeta Foreign Ministry

legally advise the new Deltazeta’s government in relation to public international law. You have just now received the following email from the Deltazeta Foreign Ministry 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

Alpha, Beta, Deltazeta and Zetaland are independent States, universally recognised by the
international community and all four are members of the United Nations. Beta, Deltazeta and
Zetaland (but not Alpha) are also party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
(ICC). Furthermore, all these states have made optional clause declarations and have thus
accepted the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ without reservations.
The Alpha government is an ally of the Deltazeta’s government. Beta is usually neutral on
these affairs and wants the international community to see it as a compliant international law
citizen. Meanwhile, Zetaland has long had a frosty relationship with Deltazeta, due to the
latter’s harsh treatment of i
requiring that all schools, including those in majority Zeta areas, teach primarily in the Delta
language. Resentment surrounding this law fuelled revolutionary sentiment among the Zeta.
Then one insurrectionist movement: The Zeta Liberation Army (ZLA) rapidly developed.
Five years ago, the ZLA started a period of aggressive civil war against the government of
Deltazeta with the aim of overthrowing the government. Deltazeta promptly sent in troops
to put down the insurrectionists. There followed a bitter conflict between Deltazeta fighting
forces and the ZLA which lasted 5 years. The conflict which first started in the western parts
of Deltazeta, progressively moved to the east and subsequently moved to the whole territory.
During the conflict, ZLA fighters gained a reputation for ruthless aggression. Under the direct
command of Mr X, they embarked on a program of ‘ethnic cleansing’ of the western part of
Deltazeta. This involved driving persons of Delta ethnicity from the mountain valleys that fell
into the ZLA’s control, appropriating their homes and farms for Zeta families. Any Delta who
refused to leave their homes within 48 hours of receiving notice to do so were removed by
force. It is estimated that 350,000 Delta were displaced from the western part of Deltazeta,
with a further 50,000 being killed by ZLA fighters.
There was a lot of turmoil in the whole territory of Deltazeta with Deltazeta’s government not
having enough resources to performs its usual functions. Some other terrible events included:
A trout farm located in Western Mountain Valley, owned by a Beta company, was destroyed
in fighting between government forces and the insurrectionaries. During these events, a Beta
national: Sigma Tau was also killed. Although this person had acquired Deltazeta nationality
one year before the event in question and was now prosperously living in Deltazeta, he had
lived and worked most of his life in Beta, where all his family lived.
Furthermore, a subsidiary of a private company incorporated in Alpha: Sigma Corporation,
located in Omicron city was the subject of extensive harassment, resulting in the withdrawal
of most Alpha personnel. The revolutionary authorities forced the subsidiary to surrender all
its entitlements and froze its bank account. They also brought some ZLA fighters as personnel
to work and continued the operation of the company.
Three men who stated they were “members of the ZLA” arrested the CEO of Sigma
Corporation, an Alpha national; gave him 40 minutes to pack his belongings and forcibly
detained him at a central hotel in Omicron City. A week later, he was deported from Deltazeta.
Given the terrible state of Deltazeta, the State of Alpha as an ally of the Deltazeta’s
government at the time, placed some of his militia at the disposal of Deltazeta. It is uncertain
however, whether the Deltazeta’s government actually took control over the army. The Alpha
army was under the command of General Y, an Alpha national. In one particularly infamous
episode (of several other horrifying ones that occurred under his command), General Y,
authorised airstrikes on a school on the Western Mountain Valley, believing it to be used as
a munitions store by the ZLA. It transpired that no munitions were stored there and the
airstrike resulted in the deaths of hundreds of children. General Y is now back at Alpha after
Alpha granted him amnesty.
Furthermore, a large group of sympathizers of the ZLA overtook the Alpha embassy located
in Omicron City. They also kidnapped the Alpha personnel in the embassy and kept them as
prisoners for six months. Many of these Alpha personnel suffered physical as well as
psychological injuries during this captivity, with one fatality occurring. Although the ZLA did
not take credit for this action, they issued propaganda endorsing the taking of the Alpha
embassy and the kidnapping of the Alpha personnel.
Following this terrible period of civil conflict, the ZLA assumed control of Deltazeta and
became the new government, with Mr X now as president of Deltazeta. The first decree of Mr
X is that the new government of Deltazeta will not take any responsibility for any actions
committed by the ZLA or the government at the time during the last 5 years and it orders all
its national Courts and Tribunals including its Supreme Court to dismiss any current/future
proceedings or claims.
Your job is to legally advise the new Deltazeta’s government in relation to public international
law. You have just now received the following email from the Deltazeta Foreign Ministry:
We have just heard word that the State of Beta is planning to diplomatically
intercede for the destruction of the trout farm on behalf of the Beta company and
the death of his national: Sigma Tau.
Also, be advised, Mr X, our president is planning to visit Beta next month in an
official capacity to deal with this. It appears however, Beta’s authorities may
attempt to arrest Mr X and intend for him to stand trial in the ICC for human rights
We have also received correspondence from the State of Alpha in relation to the
damage to the Alpha embassy, the injuries received by the personnel and the staff
that was killed. In their letter, they also referred to the deportation of the CEO of
Sigma Corporation and accusing Deltazeta of taking over Sigma Corporation.
All Cabinet Ministers are currently conferring with our President regarding all these
matters. We ask that you please advise on public international law in relation to the
following questions, in the following order, giving reasons and legal support for
your answers:
1. Does Deltazeta have any responsibility for:
a. the destruction of the trout farm owned by a Beta Company?
Why/Why not?
b. the destruction of the Alpha embassy and the injuries and/or death of
the Alpha embassy personnel? Why/Why not?
c. the deportation of the CEO of Sigma Corporation? Why/Why not?
2. Regarding the death of Sigma Tau:
a. can Beta intercede on behalf of Sigma Tau, bearing in mind that Sigma
Tau had acquired Deltazeta citizenship and; bearing in mind also, that
according to Deltazeta law any person that acquires the Deltazeta
citizenship loses any other nationality upon adopting the nationality of
b. assuming so, does Deltazeta have any responsibility and based on
3. Regarding Sigma Corporation:
a. can Alpha intercede on behalf of Sigma Corporation bearing in mind
the government of Deltazeta has not issued any law or decree
according to which Sigma Corporation was expressly nationalised or
b. if so, is it likely Deltazeta would have any responsibility for this?
Why/Why not?
4. With regards to our president Mr X,
a. would the ICC have jurisdiction to try Mr X and what would be the
most relevant offences for the ICC to charge him with?
b. assuming the ICC has no jurisdiction, could Beta arrest Mr X anyways
to try him?
5. In relation to the airstrikes on the school on the Western Mountain Valley
which resulted in the death of hundreds of children:
a. could Deltazeta argue that Alpha has responsibility for those
airstrikes? Why/Why not?
b. assuming for a moment, Alpha accepts responsibility and offers to pay
a hefty amount of money for this incident but insists on not giving up
General Y, what can be done about him?
6. Advise Deltazeta as to the advantages and disadvantages of arbitration over
all other forms of international dispute resolution to attempt to resolve the
issues with Alpha and Beta
7. Assuming for a moment: the conflict is still ongoing, the ZLA has not yet taken
power, the Alpha embassy personnel are still kidnapped; could Alpha, without
Deltazeta’s consent, use reasonable force to send the Alpha Secret Service
with a number of undercover agents to storm the embassy and attempt to
save the kidnapped people?
8. Assuming again the conflict is still ongoing, could Zetaland send drones to
attempt to kill general Y and his army based on humanitarian purposes?
Please support your answer with any particular state practice around the
world and its meaning to the law.
Guide on Submitting your Assignment:
Please note the following:
Late Assessment Penalty: Unless a Special Consideration request has been
submitted and approved: (i) a penalty for lateness will apply – two (2) marks out
of 100 will be deducted per day for assignment submitted after the due date –
and (ii) no assignment will be accepted more than seven (7) days (incl.
weekends) after the original submission deadline.
Special Consideration Policy: Applications for Special Consideration are made
electronically via and should be accompanied by supporting
documentation. Students should refer to the Special Consideration Policy for
complete details of the policy and a description of the supporting
documentation required. The Policy is available here:
The Special Consideration Policy is effective from 4th December 2017 and
replaces the Disruption to Studies Policy.
Your task:
1. Please read the facts of the scenario and questions carefully and
2. Do not regurgitate the facts of the case. You may refer to the facts on
your analysis but you do not need to reiterate the facts of the scenario in
your assignment.
3. The IRAC method is a tool to assist you in legal problem solving, it is not
a tool for you to model the structure of your answers. It is a tool that will
assist you in identifying that you have all the necessary components to
answer the question. Accordingly, make sure your analysis is evident
prior to offering a conclusion. Merely referring to the law and arriving to
a decision is not enough.
4. Even though, this scenario is not based on real facts, you should write
exactly as you would in the real world if you were advising such a client.
However, one artificial aspect of this exercise is that you should include
full citations just as you would in any academic writing. The citations
should take the form of footnotes and should comply with the Australian
Guide to Legal Citations (3rd edition).
5. Limit your advice to public international law. Assume that your client will
be advised separately in relation to any political affairs and/or relevant
domestic law.
Criteria for marking the opinion:
Your advice will be assessed in accordance with the following criteria:
• it should demonstrate an understanding of the relevant areas of
international law covered by Topics 1 to 12 of this unit;
• it should demonstrate an ability to apply the relevant principles of
international law to the scenario;
• it should demonstrate an ability to provide accurate and appropriate
• it should be your own, independent work;
• it should be written in a clear and concise style, observing the grammar
and syntax of English i.e




Midterm Exam: nvestigating and recommending solutions to a business problem

Midterm Exam: nvestigating and recommending solutions to a business problem 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

Midterm Examination – Brief Description:

This assignment designed to give you the experience of investigating and recommending solutions to a business problem. Read the scenario (business problem) below and present solutions to managers within the client organisations. Write a clearly structured, well- argued and appropriately referenced report of 4000 words. You are expected to deal with complex issues faced by the owner, both systematically and creatively, make sound judgements in the absence of complete data, and communicate their conclusions clearly to specialist and non-specialist audiences.


In the heart of London’s city centre, the popular SpiceSky restaurant prides itself on the quality and range of its Indian food since 1988. The restaurant has been recording a yearly increase in sales since its grand opening more than two decades earlier. The restaurant owner Ali Mahal, nevertheless, has invited your company to offer solutions to a gradual decline in sales that has been recorded the last 12 months. More specifically, Ali explained that sales, which have grown every year since he opened the restaurant, have actually dropped over the last twelve months. Yet, London’s central restaurants, as well as the town’s city centre have continued to prosper.

Moreover, to get a full picture, you have decided to visit the restaurant and investigate first-hand the experience of dining in SpiceSky.

Day 1: Lunch Time

 You have visited SpiceSky and found yourselves over a table with vegetable samosa, pakora, chicken spring rolls, lamp tikka,  tandoori chicken, and two bottles of Hadia beer. One of your colleagues, passionate with cold beer, immediately states: this beer is lovely; I think Hadia is a rice beer isn’t it? Ali replied, “Ah, yes, it is created by mixing herbs with boiled rice and leaving the mixture to ferment for around a week. But, we had to remove that from our menu as we needed to reduce our costs. We serve instead English

beers. We save Hadia just for friends. Somehow, we had to reduce the costs and therefore we decided to remove some dishes and beverages.

After you finished with your dinner, you asked Ali explaining in more depth what he thinks has caused the sharp decline of sales.

Ali: Well, I have realized that all the downtown restaurants have dramatically increased their television advertising. “I’ve been using the same advertising for years: a few spots on local radio, an occasional newspaper spot, and a billboard on the main highway, 5 miles from the restaurant. When I see the fancy advertising run by my competitors, it is clear that I have an advertising problem. I want you to tell me what I can do to make my advertising more effective!” Once the interview is complete, you informed Ali that you will go back and prepare a proposal that will describe how he may be able to help SpiceSky get back on track.

Day 2: Later that day

 Back in the office, you have started the examination of SpiceSky’s reports. You began studying the advertising of both SpiceSky and its competitors. At some point, you identified that that some of the neighborhood competitors, including a big chain Indian restaurants, have always had a large promotional budget, including television ads. The advertising deficit isn’t new. He tries to identify all the things that have changed since SpiceSky’s sales trends turned downward. Does Ali really have an advertising problem? Is it a problem with competitive positioning? Is it a problem with a change in the external operating environment? Has Ali just missed out on some growth opportunities? Then, just as hunger starts to set in, you remembered the vegetable samosa, pakora, lamp tikka, and tandoori chicken you had for lunch. Maybe your hunger has led to a discovery!

Day 2

One of your colleagues calls Ali for a follow-up interview. The dialogue is the following:

Colleagues: Ali, as you suggested, the downward sales began twelve months ago. Aside from the advertising you mentioned earlier, what other changes have occurred inside of your business within the past year?

Ali: Just a few things. Although sales are down, our profits haven’t suffered very much. Since we

hired a cost comptroller just over a year ago. We have effectively managed our costs by changing suppliers and dropping some of the more costly items from our menu.

Colleague: Such as changing the rice beer?

Ali: ‘The Hadia that we served costs us almost 5 pounds per bottle. Customers don’t like to pay

more than 3 pounds per glass for a beer, so we were doing little more than breaking even on it. Besides, our competitors also serve English beers.


Colleague: Have you noticed changes in your customers?


Ali: Other than the fact that they are coining less often, no! They are the same faces that I have seen for years.


Colleague: Have the complaints or comments changed?


Ali: A few complained on removing an item or two from the menu. A couple about the Hadia change.


Colleague: Has there been a change in personnel?


Ali: Yes, we’ve had more than the usual share of turnover. I’ve turned over most personnel decisions to the controller. We’ve had trouble maintaining good kitchen help.


Colleague: Have you noticed any changes to the competitors that you have not already mentioned?


Ali: Most of the nearby places are doing the same things they have done for years. The chain Indian restaurants have the same promotions each year and their menu doesn’t change very much.



This is an independent piece of work Wordage: 4000

Deadline: Week 3

Use the Harvard Referencing System throughout the report.




90+ Work of an excellent standard


Has presented evidence at an excellent level of interpretation and clarity of the company     problem Has demonstrated an excellent level of application of theory to practice

80+ Work of good standard


Has presented evidence at a very good level of interpretation and clarity of the company     problem Has demonstrated a very good level of application of theory to practice

70 + Work of average standard


Has presented evidence at a good level of interpretation and clarity of the company problem     Has demonstrated a good level of application of theory to practice

60+ Work of satisfactory standard


Has presented evidence at a satisfactory level of interpretation and clarity of the company     problem Has demonstrated a satisfactory level of application of theory to practice

0 – 59 Fail


Has presented evidence at a below pass standard level of interpretation and clarity of the company     problem Has demonstrated a below pass standard level of application of theory to practice




Write a 4-5 page paper that summarizes your position on motivation specifically in the workplace from the perspective of a manager.

Write a 4-5 page paper that summarizes your position on motivation specifically in the workplace from the perspective of a manager. 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

Review this short video
Use academic journals to find scholarly, peer-reviewed research that extends any of the ideas about motivation that you found interesting. You are not limited to what Ariely discussed. Just be sure you are dealing with employee motivation.

Read each article through to the general discussion at the end. The best ideas will be found there. Do not simply duplicate the abstract. You will miss most of the essence of the article and this approach tends to lead to poor grades.

Write a 4-5 page paper that summarizes your position on motivation specifically in the workplace from the perspective of a manager. Ensure the following points are addressed.

Clarity on how you feel motivation should be applied in the workplace.
Specific strategies to avoid that you have done, experienced, or observed concerning motivation in the workplace.
Specific strategies to apply that you have done, experienced, or observed concerning motivation in the workplace.
Clear justification as to the why of what should be avoided or applied.




Identify an organization, which has experienced noteworthy issues in the past, in regards to unethical behavior. Provide information about this organization

Identify an organization, which has experienced noteworthy issues in the past, in regards to unethical behavior. Provide information about this organization 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

All organizations, regardless of industry, experience problems. Company issues and controversies, especially those that are made public, can influence a business’s success and longevity, thus impacting the future of the organization.
Identify an organization, which has experienced noteworthy issues in the past, in regards to unethical behavior. Provide information about this organization, in regards to the following:
Business model
Organizational structure
Provide an explanation of what occurred in this organization, which was indicative of unethical behavior.
Based upon the organization’s unethical behavior, develop a list of interview questions to uncover information regarding the following:
Why this issue occurred.
Who was involved in this issue.
How the organization is addressing this issue.
How can the organization, through training and development, prevent future unethical behavior from occurring?
Please note what stakeholders/employees of the organization you would interview to determine information about the unethical occurrence. Explain your rationale for selecting these individuals for an interview.
Support your case study with at least two scholarly resources. Ensure your final case includes a cover page and references formatted per the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements
(Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.
Written Paper
Your paper should be 2-3 pages in length, not including the title and reference pages. Ensure each component of your paper is in a single Word document for submission to the Week 4 Assignments page. Cite any sources in accordance with the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements
(Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.

Customer files




ENGL 102: Argument Essay: argue a specific position within the larger debate about how best to address the issue of global poverty

ENGL 102: Argument Essay: argue a specific position within the larger debate about how best to address the issue of global poverty 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

Assignment: Write a 750 to 1000 word essay that makes an argument about how best to address global poverty.

 Your goal in this paper is to

To do this, you should addressing the following questions:

  • What is the problem?

Research information on facts about poverty- where, who, how many, why.

  • What sorts of solutions are currently being proposed?

Research information on how poverty is being addressed now or in the future

  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of those proposals?

Research and your own position.

  • Which proposals do you believe are most effective, and why?

Research and your own position


Your purpose in this essay is to develop an argument for how best to address rising poverty. Your essay should demonstrate critical thinking and logical reasoning, and your writing must be supported by convincing textual evidence from the readings.


Your final draft must be in APA, which means that it must have 1-inch top, bottom, right and left margins; be double spaced and set in 12pt. Times New Roman font; and include running headers with last name and page numbers. Your final paper must also include APA in-text citations and a properly formatted APA reference list.


 Provisional thesis.

  1. Make a bibliography of at least 10 citations (at least one scholarly Journal article!)
  2. Rewrite the thesis

Bibliography example

Max Roser and Esteban Ortiz-Ospina (2018) – “Global Extreme Poverty”. Retrieved from: ‘’

“It is important to note that the International Poverty Line is extremely low. Indeed, ‘extreme poverty’ is an adequate term for those living under this low threshold. Focusing on extreme poverty is important precisely because it captures those most in need. However, it is also important to point out that living conditions well above the International Poverty Line can still be characterized by poverty and hardship. Accordingly, in this entry we will also discuss the global distribution of people below poverty lines that are higher than the International Poverty Line of 1.90 int.-$.”

No author. 11 Facts about poverty.( n.d)

  1. Nearly 1/2 of the world’s population — more than 3 billion people — live on less than $2.50 a day. More than 1.3 billion live in extreme poverty — less than $1.25 a day.
  2. 1 billion children worldwide are living in poverty. According to UNICEF, 22,000 children die each day due to poverty.
  3. 805 million people worldwide do not have enough food to eat. Food banks are especially important in providing food for people that can’t afford it themselves. Run a food drive outside your local grocery store so people in your community have enough to eat. Sign up for Supermarket Stakeout.
  4. More than 750 million people lack adequate access to clean drinking water. Diarrhea caused by inadequate drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene kills an estimated 842,000 people every year globally, or approximately 2,300 people per day.
  5. In 2011, 165 million children under the age 5 were stunted (reduced rate of growth and development) due to chronic malnutrition.

(This site has facts and sources. Check it out)



Barringer M   (2017, April 29)  10 ways to reduce poverty in the world. The Borgen Project.

  1. Develop and implement rapid and sustained economic growth policiesand programs, in areas such as health, education, nutrition and sanitation, allowing the poor to participate and contribute to the growth. Studies show that a 10 percent increase in a country’s average income reduces poverty by as much as 20-30 percent.
  2. Improve management of water and other natural resources.Most of the rural poor depend on agriculture or other natural resources for their livelihood. Consequently, it is necessary that they have more equitable access to those resources so they are better able to manage their resources.
  3. Invest in and implement agricultural programs.China has helped 800 million people out of poverty since 1978. As a part of its strategy to eradicate poverty by 2020, the Agricultural Bank of China will lend more than $400 billion to help develop rural areas, fund education, infrastructure, and crop production.
  4. Encourage countries to engage in trade as a path out of poverty.Trade is the key to growth and prosperity. Some of the world’s poorest countries including IndonesiaBotswana and Brazil have traded their way out of poverty.





AST 1002/ EAP 1640c: Classification Essay

AST 1002/ EAP 1640c: Classification Essay 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

Mission: To create an essay that allows the reader to understand/interpret a system of classification for a group of astronomical objects.



Student Learning Outcome Teaching & Learning Experiences/Activities/


Elements of Thought and/or Intellectual Standards (specific features applied)
1.1.        Analyze and interpret relevant information Lecture, video presentation of critical thinking. Students will use giant post-its to  visually identify types of critical thinking and their group understanding
1.2.        Explain questions, problems, and/or issues Group class activity to support creation of graph as graphic organizer Students will meet and use graph tools to organize their material and observe it in a clear, precise, representational form.
1.3.        Evaluate information to determine credibility of reasoning Students will receive library instruction to facilitate their search for useful, valid material to support their discussion of critical thinking. Students will present library materials and their intended application to colleagues in class groups
1.4.        Generate well-reasoned conclusions Students will peer review each other’s draft of the classification essay and make recommendations to each other. Students will apply suggestions, lecture material, weblinks, videos, and group direction to craft the final classification essay for grade.


 Step One – Reflections:

Within your group, discuss and explore the topic of critical thinking. Classification rhetoric allows a single unifying traits to be observed from different vantage points.  Types of thinking may be classified and discussed in this essay.  Use your reference notes and materials on Critical Thinking.    Then separate into categories or classification identity groups           such as deliberate thinking, subliminal thinking, and cultural thinking. These are the areas of the critical thinking processes you will be discussing with respect to classification in your groups:

  • Cooperative learning groups: Groups of students working together with their peers to accomplish a common goal.
  • Problem-based learning: An instructional strategy in which students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their experiences.
  • Project-based learning: Students go through an extended process of inquiry in response to a complex question, problem, or challenge. These projects are carefully planned, managed, and assessed to help students learn key academic content and skills, such as critical thinking.
  • Reflection: Teaching students to reflect critically on one’s experience, integrate knowledge gained from experience with knowledge possessed, and take action on insights


Use these two videos and the following link to choose your topic and classification presented in your essay:


Step Two – Arrays: Once you have collected your information, look for commonalities and differences.  You can use a Venn diagram to aid in you creating an array.  The Venn diagram will aid you in refining the differences and similarities. You can use the diagrams to work on refining the properties that differentiate the different categories. Use Figure 1 as an example.

Figure 1 Venn Diagram

An array is a graphical representation of information on several different objects that allow one to see trends and qualities of these objects.  Usually used in business, scientific, and mathematical studies. Here are two videos that show you how to use Google Sheets or Excel to create your array like Table 1 .


In this step, we will be addressing this critical thinking concept: Concept mapping: Graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge typically illustrated using diagrams to show the relationships among concepts.


Table 1 Comparison Array

Activity/Object rough precise accurate


An example of classification is categorizing planets.  You can use questions like this help with the categorizing of planets:

  • List the planets (both major and minor) of the Solar System.
  • List and describe the types of planets.
  • Characterize each type of planet.
  • Analyze each planet’s membership in each type of planet. (In other words, why are they characterized in their type?)


You can create these types of questions to work up categorizing your selected group of objects.

Step Three – Writing the Paper: Use your graph as your outline, follow the directions for crafting the classification essay.  Review the written or video resources presented in this assignment guide to help guide your writing.  Present your rough draft to two members of your group.  Receive rough drafts from two members of the group.

Once you have worked with your group, have the professor review first draft and corrective plan. Write final draft of Classification of Critical Thinking Essay and submit the completed essay for grade.

In this step, we will be addressing this critical thinking concept: Think, Pair, Square, and Share Technique: Students think about a question related to the content just introduced over a reasonable span of time then students break into pairs and share their thoughts with each other. Pairs then join other pairs, forming squares which could be invited to join other squares to continue the process of sharing thoughts and insights while using active listening techniques.

Additional Links for Critical Thinking





IRHR 2270 – Introduction to Human Resource Management: Design an employee engagement/attitude survey.

IRHR 2270 – Introduction to Human Resource Management: Design an employee engagement/attitude survey. 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

This portfolio comprises 3 parts, comprising each of 2 tasks. The tasks will need to be uploaded to the Assignments/Turnitin area of Blackboard and are due as outlined below.


Each task will be based around the following scenario and material may be drawn from the textbook, lectures and other reliable sources.  Feel free to use creativity and invent any necessary detail.  You do not need to reference individual tasks but may like to list the sources consulted.   Each item should be no longer than two pages maximum (i.e. 2 pages maximum for the job description, 2 pages maximum for the job advertisement etc.).




You are a newly recruited Human Resources Officer at a large engineering and infrastructure organisation. The organisation has been contracted to take on several large construction projects across several locations in the Asia Pacific region. You have been charged with the responsibility of recruiting a new management team of Team Leaders (Managers) to head these projects.


Several positions are available, with Team Leaders (Managers) responsible for large teams of employees (at each location). Team Leaders (Managers) will be responsible for overall project management of the construction at their own location.


Locations: China, Singapore; New Zealand; Hong Kong; Philippines; Malaysia; India; Indonesia; South Korea; Thailand; Australia.


Duties include (but are not limited to): managing large teams of employees, working to a scheduled timeframe, maintaining budgets, working with subcontractors, ensuring workplace health and safety standards, and liaising with various all levels of management and government authorities.


Team Leaders (Managers) report to the: President, Asia-Pacific through their Area/Regional General Managers.

 Complete the following tasks in order to recruit & select the appropriate staff. In addition, you are required to design a performance management review document; and Employee Engagement/Attitude Survey and Exit Questionnaire:


  • PART A  DUE TO BE LODGED THROUGH BLACKBOARD BY 11.59pm SUNDAY WEEK 6 [Lodge all parts of PART A as one file]


  • PART B DUE TO BE LODGED THROUGH BLACKBOARD BY 11.59pm SUNDAY WEEK 10 [Lodge all parts of PART B as one file]


  • PART C DUE TO BE LODGED THROUGH BLACKBOARD BY 11.59pm SUNDAY WEEK 12 [Lodge all parts of PART C as one file]


Remember to lodge as a single file each time (i.e. do not merge Part A, Part B, and Part C into the one document).


Each Part of the Portfolio (PART A) plus (PART B) plus (PART C) is worth 10 marks (each task 5 marks) for a combined total of 30 marks.



PART A  Sunday Week 6
Task 1 – Job Description
Write a job description for the team leader position.
Task 2 – Job Advertisement
Write a job advertisement for the position.



PART B    Sunday Week 10
Task 3 – The Selection Interview Panel
3.1 List and justify the persons on the selection interview panel and
3.2 write the interview questions
Task 4 – Performance Management review
Design a performance appraisal record for use in a performance appraisal interview.


PART C    Sunday Week 12
Task 5 – Employee Engagement/Attitude Survey
Design an employee engagement/attitude survey.
Task 6 – Exit Interview Questions and Questionnaire
List and justify the method and questions used for an exit interview for the position.





ARCH171: How did changing energy conditions influence the different architecture of storage and trading of goods in medieval Chester and C19 Liverpool?

ARCH171: How did changing energy conditions influence the different architecture of storage and trading of goods in medieval Chester and C19 Liverpool? 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch


ARCH171 Essay: Instructions and guidance

Write an essay on the subject below. Please read this entire guidance document carefully before choosing your topic and buildings.


Choose two pieces of architecture which have some interesting similarity, one of them from in or around Liverpool, and investigate the ways in which their similarities and differences relate to the energy economy of the societies that produced them.

One of your buildings is to be in or near Liverpool, built between 1780 and 1939, the other is to be from anywhere in the world, provided it is from a pre-industrial society (no factories, no trains etc at the time your building was produced).


Topics you may wish to investigate could include the following, but please do not be limited to these (if you have a topic you are interested in, but are not sure if it fits the brief, discuss it with me after a lecture):

  1. Materials and technology: how does the cheaper energy of industrial Liverpool change what materials are selected?
  2. Functions: how does one building type (the ordinary house, the grand house, the place of trade, or similar) differ in high energy Liverpool versus some other place.
  3. The street: how did the Industrial Revolution change the streets of central Liverpool relative to any pre-industrial city’s typical streets?
  4. Ostentation (which essentially means showing off): how do different buildings in different energy contexts demonstrate that they are important? Do the important-looking buildings in Liverpool actually have the same level of importance to their society as the important-looking buildings of pre-industrial societies?
  5. Transport: you could look at the physical infrastructure of transport in some pre-industrial context (a harbour, a system for communicating messages or similar) and a comparable transport system in industrial Liverpool (the docks, the railway or similar), and see how industrial cheap energy shapes new transport systems.



There is no single reading list for this essay, because your topic will decide what reading is relevant.

These books will certainly be of use:

  • Joseph Sharples, Pevsner Architectural Guides: Liverpool (London: Yale, 2004)

This is a wonderful book and will be useful throughout your studies in Liverpool, so buy it if you can – it’s £9 second-hand on Amazon at the moment. The introduction gives an excellent history of Liverpool that may help you to choose a topic, and the main chapters take you through the architecture of most of the important buildings of central Liverpool, with lots of the sort of information you will need for this essay.

  • A. Wrigley, Energy and the English Industrial Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge, 2010).
  • Astrid Kander, Paolo Malanima, Paul Warde, Power to the people: energy in Europe over the last five centuries (Princeton: Princeton, 2013). Available as an electronic book through the University Library website (click ‘get full text’ from the catalogue entry, and follow the instructions.

These two books will help you to inform yourself about, and think through, the energy component of the question. They both mostly focus on Europe (and are therefore invaluable for the industrial Liverpool end of your research), but in fact they also include a lot of references to other societies and times. Their footnotes and bibliography will help you to find energy information specific to whatever topic you choose.

  • Vaclav Smil, Energy and Civilization: A History (Cambridge MA: MIT, 2017). This is again available through the university library website, and gives some outline of more international energy contexts and factors.
  • Cutler J Cleveland (editor), Encyclopedia of Energy (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004) Again available as an electronic book through the Library website.


This is a useful source if you want to know more about the energy requirements of particular materials or technologies. Its more general entries may also help you in addition to the histories above.


Advice on finding building-specific reading

For other reading, specific to your chosen buildings, the best way to find good material is through the University Library’s ‘Discover’ search (on the library home page). If, for example, I wanted to research the concrete system used to build the Liver Building, I would not search for ‘concrete’, because I would be swamped with material. Instead I would try to be very specific to start with: ‘concrete liver building 1904 liverpool construction’. This turns out to be too specific, no results, so I cut back to ‘liver building liverpool’, and get a fairly large number of results which mostly do not look very promising. I might have a look at a few of the ones with titles which seem more interesting, but they are not looking good for telling me serious things about the concrete, which is what I was wanting to know.

Instead I look at what Sharples (book 1 on the reading list above) says about the building, and find that the concrete system used was by someone called Hennebique, so I search ‘Hennebique concrete’. Looking down the list several of them are about conservation of concrete, and too technical for what I’m after, but as I keep going down I see an article called ‘Agents of Change: Hennebique, Mouchel and Ferro-Concrete in Britain, 1897-1908.’ Given that Mouchel is also mentioned in Sharples’s account of the Liver building, and that the period of the article includes the period when the Liver Building was designed, I am pretty pleased with that as a result, and by clicking on ‘full text’ under the title I am taken to a page where I can read the article. It is in an academic journal and uses proper scholarly references so I can place a lot of confidence in its information, unlike a Wikipedia page which can be edited by anyone who wants.

To put it more briefly, there are no clear rules on good searches, just keep playing around until you find good material.




When you have chosen your two pieces of architecture, and the thing(s) about them both that you want to compare, read about both. From the first good article you find on each, look at the footnotes to find more useful reading.

Read enough of one or more of the energy history books on the list above to start to understand the scale of energy change between your two pieces of architecture, and to have an idea of its implications for architecture.

Then spend some time at your Liverpool building, looking at it and thinking about it in relation to its construction energy cost and/or the way it used energy. Do something similar with an image search for your other building, if it is not possible for you to visit it in person (you are welcome to choose buildings anywhere in the world for this, either ones we have looked at on the course, or not, provided they were produced by a pre-industrial energy economy).

Make notes about the two buildings, and be careful to include in all your notes the page numbers and publication details of the places you found your information – you will need this for your referencing. Take notes throughout all reading (even online if you’re using some online sources) saying where you got each piece of information from, including page number (for printed sources and online journals) and date retrieved (which means the date you first read it) for other online sources.

The thing which this essay will be marked on above all else is good analysis: your own observations and careful thought about the relationship between energy and your two buildings.

The quality of your essay will stand on four things, in this order of importance:

  1. The quality of your thinking (have you managed to get your head round the immense effects of different energy contexts on the construction and functioning of your two buildings)
  2. The quality of your research (have you managed to find and read serious scholarly sources and to get from them the information you need to know, rather than guess, about the two buildings you are writing about)
  3. The quality of your writing (have you written the essay clearly, engagingly, and with a structure that makes your argument clear)
  4. Presentation (take your own photos and sketches of the Liverpool building, and make diagrams of the other building too, not just to show me what it looks like, but to explain its energy use in visual form; you might for example want to make a diagram of each building showing the location of any energy-intense materials in the building, to help clarify your message. Do not just type out your essay, shove some pictures at the end, and click ‘submit’ – make the document a pleasure to use and think about how you are designing it.)


NOTES AND PLAN: (use these titles for your own notes, to help you make sure that you are including everything you need. You do not need to submit your notes.)



Notes from reading on the low-energy building (always include source, and page number if given on the document)

What was the building for and why was it built the way it was?

What was the energy context of the society?

How does the energy context shape the way the building is designed?

Which materials require high energy intensity and which require large amounts of low-intensity energy? Why was each selected?

Is the building in any respect an energy investment to control existing supplies or gain control of more energy? If so, how? If not, what is it for and how does this relate to the energy economy?


Notes from reading on and visiting the Liverpool building (always include source and page number)

What was the building for and why was it built the way it was?

What was the energy context of the society?

How does the energy context shape the way the building is designed?

Which materials require high energy intensity and which require large amounts of low-intensity energy? Why was each selected?

Is the building in any respect an energy investment to control existing supplies or gain control of more energy? If so, how? If not, what is it for and how does this relate to the energy economy?


Your own analytical thought about the relationship between the two:

In what ways are the two projects similar?

In what ways are they different?

What is the role of energy change in these similarities and differences?

Which of the two buildings took more energy to construct? Is it the more important of the two?

Which of the two buildings took more energy to run? Is it the more important of the two?

What factors other than energy change cause these similarities and differences? (And have a careful think about whether any of these factors also has some relationship to energy change)

Your essay plan

Introduction: (give us a very quick sense of the date, function and context of the two buildings, tell us what comparison you are exploring between them, and get us interested with any striking or surprising facts or discoveries you have)


Analysis: this is most of your essay, and you should organise it in a way which suits your analytical findings from reading, looking and thinking.

It is very, very important that your essay should not mainly describe the two buildings. What is needed is a critical discussion of the relationship between the two, and their energy contexts. Only tell us as much about the buildings and their contexts as we need to know in order to follow your argument.

You might want to try one of the following outline structures:

Part 1: similarities between the buildings, and what causes them.

Part 2: differences between the buildings, and what causes them.

Conclusion: summarise these findings in terms of the energy changes between the two.


Or something like this, adapted to your specific topic:

Part 1: Structural and engineering differences and similarities between the two buildings, and the energy changes that bring them about.

Part 2: Aesthetic differences and similarities between the two buildings, and why these might be the case given the different structural systems.

Conclusion: summarise these findings in terms of the relationship between architectural conservatism and underlying energy change


You are not limited to the above structures, but please DO NOT use the following structure which will not encourage critical analysis:

Part 1: the non-Liverpool building

Part 2: the Liverpool building

Conclusion: some attempt to talk about the two together



Summarise what you have found, and if possible add briefly some interesting extra element: some way in which your analysis casts light on your understanding of architecture, or of the present architectural emphasis on sustainability.

Writing and referencing

Word Count: 1700-2000 words

Illustration, referencing, and academic integrity

Illustrate your essay with relevant images which support your argument, and include quotations from the text where relevant. Use of your own diagrams or other illustrations is strongly encouraged. Make clear what the source of your images is (Flickr/own photo/own diagram/diagram from a scholarly article [with reference], etc.)

Do not copy and paste or retype text from any other source without putting quotation marks round it (‘ ’) and a proper reference telling us where it is from. This is for two reasons, the first being that you are showing us what you have read so that we can give you credit for it. The second reason is that you are otherwise claiming other people’s work as your own. This is a form of stealing, and is treated extremely seriously by the university.

If you are taking an idea from any piece of writing, but changing the words, this does not need quotation marks, but it still does need a reference to tell us where the idea came from. The ONLY exceptions to this rule are facts which are so well-known that everyone can be assumed to know them – the dates of a particular king’s rule, or the location of a building, for example. If you have got any other fact from any source, reference it. An essay of this length ought to have at least 20 references within the text, and potentially considerably more, though many of them may refer to the same few key sources (if you find lots of information from three articles and one book, for example, they may each be referenced lots of times, every time you have a fact from one of them, making for 20 or more references between them).

Please use the Chicago style of referencing, with footnotes and bibliography. The details of how to do this are here (, and it is necessary to observe their punctuation etc. closely in order to get it exactly right. Once you get into the habit it gets much easier. Make sure that as you do your reading you take as part of your notes the necessary details for referencing.

Please give your essay an appropriate title, which explains what it is asking. This does not count as part of your word count.

References are also not to be included in your word count (there is a check-box on Microsoft Word word count to make it automatically exclude them).

Please include a bibliography (an alphabetical list of everything you have read in your research for the essay, in order of the family name of the author), which does not count towards your word count.

Typically university markers allow 10% latitude on word-counts: if you are under 2200 you will not be marked down for going over the word limit of 2000.

The essay will be anonymously marked, which is the best practice in university coursework assessment. It is important that you do not put your name within the document itself: VITAL will keep track of who submitted what.

Before you submit your essay, try to leave time to read your work out loud to yourself. It makes you feel silly, but hearing your own words out loud is often the best way of noticing when your writing is awkward or missing words.



Your essay will be submitted online only, via Turnitin. You will therefore have no printing costs and should use as many illustrations as you like to make it a really clear and attractive document (though please don’t use very high-resolution images as they will make your document hard to upload and download).

Allow yourself extra time for a slow internet connection at either end or similar: you lose marks as soon as it is a minute late, and with illustrations essay files can be big and slow to upload.

Possible Questions:

Please feel free to come up with your own topic. If you would like to discuss a possible topic with me I will be happy to discuss it with you before or after one of my lectures.

If you would like to answer a set question, below are some possible ones with some suggestions on where to start your reading.

At the link below is some recommended reading covering a range of topics including bits on these:


  • How did changing energy conditions influence the different architecture of storage and trading of goods in medieval Chester and C19 Liverpool?


  • How did different energy conditions make a difference to the houses of ordinary people in [CHOOSE ONE: medieval England/Dogon villages] as against those in C19 Liverpool?


  • How did changing energy conditions affect the design of the homes of powerful people: compare the palace at Parsa and C19 merchants’ houses in Liverpool.


  • How did changing energy regimes alter the architecture of transport and hospitality between the coaching inns of the C18 and Lime Street Station and Hotel in the C19?


  • What differences do [CHOOSE ONE: the Parthenon, Athens/the Shah Mosque, Isfahan/Chartres Cathedral] and Liverpool Anglican Cathedral reveal about the position of religion in their societies?

For the purpose of this question, please discuss the society of Liverpool when the Anglican Cathedral was begun (in the first decade of the C20) rather than when it was finished in the 1970s.


  • How do the differences between Oxford University at any period before 1800 and Liverpool University in the C19 show the effects of energy changes between the two periods?