Answer each question in the form of clear, well-organized short essay approximately 2-3 paragraphs long per topic. Number each topic within the essay.
1. Explain why Africa is known as the “keystone” of the continental drift hypothesis. How does it relate to the development and migration of humans.
2. Explain the effect of trade routes and centers on African culture and society. What goods and resources became popular and influential as a result?
3. Explain the development of languages in early African societies. What affect did language development have on the economic system of urban areas and trade centers across the continent.
It is important to note that continental drift hypothesis affected development and migration of humans in different ways. Firstly, people moved to the places that had no traces of dangerous animals that could affect their life (Walton, 2013). Conversely, people also settled in locations that were safe and secure in terms of structure of land and rock arrangement. At some point, when strange hypothesis and discoveries, people living in Africa moved to other continents for their safety and new environment (Runcorn, 2013).
In conclusion, it is evident that Africa is the keystone of continental hypothesis considering the number of studies as well as discoveries performed therein. Work of researchers Ortelius and Weneger among other key personals proved that in deed Africa was centre stage for such figurative activities. Continental drift also affected the migration as well as development of people in different approaches.
Question 2. Explain the effect of trade routes and centers on African culture and society. What goods and resources became popular and influential as a result?
There were various effects both positive and negative on African culture and society. For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, trade of activities led to growth of Islam culture. This religion originated from Middle East and North Africa as well as Southern Asia. As a result, there was improved level of socialization among people participating in trade activities. Moreover, Islamic religion influenced culture of people in various station they visited in terms of clothing, food, and language used (Topik & Pomeranz, 2014). Most important to note is that there was emergence of economic and political patterns in different areas marked for trade routes.
There were development and emergence of social and technological changes in many part of Africa especially where trade routes and centers were. On the aspect of social changes, people started to learn new language, which was experienced in almost every trade centers. In addition, intermarriages among different communities also took place (Hopkins, 2014).This was due to the fact that there was high level of interaction and understanding among different communities.
Emergence and formation of powerful states, for example, Mali and Songhay were also as a result of trade activities. In various parts of West Africa, development of city-states occurred as fastened by merchant communities especially on Indian Ocean of East Africa. As earlier stated, technology was slowly mushrooming in different part of Africa, however, the reception and understanding of benefits accrued were differently. Later, when western Europeans, that is the Portuguese, arrived in Africa in 15th century, there were radical improvement in African economy.
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