AP Euro – Unit 6 Study Guide – 18th Century European Society and Economy (100 points)
Unit 6 covers two chapters out of your textbook. In order to ensure that you make use of the study guide as an actual study tool it will be due before your test day. Be sure you are balancing your time and not leaving it until the last minute.
Chapter 15 terms and people:
|1. Ancien Regime||The Ancien Regime was basically the Old Regime. The term has come to be applied generally to the life and institutions of pre-revolutionary Europe. Politically, on the continent, though not in Great Britain, it meant the rule of theoretically absolute monarchies with growing bureaucracies and aristocratically led armies. Economically, a scarcity of food, the predominance of agriculture, slow transport, a low level of iron production, comparatively unsophisticated financial institutions, and, in some cases, competitive commercial overseas empires characterized the Old Regime. Socially, men and women living during the period saw themselves less as individuals than as members of distinct corporate bodies that possessed certain privileges or rights as a group.|
|2. Aristocracy||A government in which the power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility.|
|3. Agricultural revolution||A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically causing a spike in population.|
|4. Consumer revolution||A time period during which the desire for exotic imports increased dramatically due to economic expansion and population growth.|
|5. Nobles of the Sword||Noblemen of the oldest class of nobility in France dating from Middle Ages and the Early Modern periods, but still arguably in existence by descent.|
|6. Nobles of the Robe||A class of hereditary nobles who acquired their rank through holding a high state office. Their name is derived from robes worn by officials.|
|7. Taille||A direct tax on the French peasantry. The taille was one of the most important sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.|
|8. corvee||Forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects.|
|9. House of Lords||One of the two divisions of Parliament that was made up 60 members that were either Bishops, Dukes, Earls, and Barons and were all more upper class people and fitting of the noble stature compared to the members of the House of Commons who contained middle class members. The House of Lords’ members almost always agreed with the King and/or Queen’s decisions so that they could keep their political roles.|
|10. House of Commons||One of the two divisions of Parliament that was made up of more middle class and average people that were occasionally elected into office by their peers but more the most part were elected into office by the largest local landowner. The House of Commons were more independent meaning they were allowed to speak their minds more than the members of The House of Lords without losing their political roles.|
|11. Junkers||Prussia’s landowning nobility. The Junkers supported the monarchy and served in the army in exchange for absolute power over their serfs.|
|12. Charter of the Nobility||Established by Catherine the Great, it legally spelled out the rights of the nobles in exchange for their voluntary service to the state. Some of the rights were transferring the noble status to a wife and children, judicial protection of rights and property, power over the serfs, exemption from personal taxes.|
|13. Banalities||Monopolies maintained by landowners giving them the right to demand that tenants pay to grind all their grain in the landowner’s mill and bake all their bread in his oven|
|14. Jethro Tull||English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.|
|15. Charles Townshend||A man who could deliver brilliant speeches in Parliament even while drunk. He rashly promised to pluck feathers from the colonial goose with a minimum of squawking. He persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts. He seized a dubious distinction between internal and external taxes and made this tax an indirect customs duty payable at American ports, but colonials didn’t want taxes.|
|16. Robert Bakewell||In the 1700’s this man began trying to raise larger sheep to provide more meat and wool. By allowing only the best animals to breed, he increased the weight of his sheep and also greatly improved the taste of the mutton.|
|17. David Hume||Scottish philosopher whose skeptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses|
|18. Arthur Young||He was an English writer on agriculture who also campaigned for the rights of agricultural workers. He edited the Annals of Agriculture and discussed a lot of what Bakewell did in terms of breeding other animals in his pamphlets. He travelled widely across Europe and his books are among the most important documents of his life during the late eighteenth century.|
|19. Enclosure movement||The rising price of wheat encouraged landlords to consolidate or enclose their lands to increase production. The enclosures were intended to use land more rationally and to achieve greater commercial profits. The process involved the fencing of common lands, the reclamation of previously untilled waste, and the transformation of strips into block fields. These procedures brought turmoil to the economic and social life of the countryside. Riots often ensued.|
|20. Robert Turgot||He analyzed differences in landholding attitudes toward work and different levels of production and wealth. He was especially concerned with the arrangements that encouraged long-term investment. The metayer system Turgot discussed was an arrangement where the landowners had land farmed by the peasants who received part of the harvest as payment for working the land, but the peasant had no long-term interest in improving the land. Virtually everyone regarded the system as inefficient.|
|21. Josiah Wedgwood||He was a porcelain manufacturer who first attempted to find customers among the royal family and the aristocracy. Once he had gained their business with luxury goods, he then produced a less expensive version of their chinaware for middle-class customers. He used advertising and opened showrooms in London. There seemed to be no limit to the markets for consumer goods that social emulation on the one hand and advertising on the other could stimulate.|
|22. Cottage industry||Many women were displaced from spinning thread or farming, and slowly turned to cottage industries- such as knitting, button making, straw plaiting, bonnet making, or glove stitching- that invariably earned them less than their former occupations had. The work and skills that these jobs had were considered inferior and it paid poorly. Many women who turned to the cottage industry ending up becoming prostitutes or turning to crime. The reputation and social standing of working women suffered.|
|23. Domestic system||This was a system where agents of urban textile merchants took wool or other unfinished fibers to the homes of peasants, who spun it into thread. The agent then transported the thread to other peasants, who wove it into the finished product. The merchant sold the wares. In thousands of peasant cottages from ireland to Austria, there stood a spinning wheel or a hand loom Sometimes, the spinners or weavers owned their own equipment, but more often than not by the middle of the century, the merchant capitalist owned the machinery as well as the raw material.|
|24. James Hargreaves||In 1765, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny. INitially the machine allowed 16 spindles of thread to be spun, but it eventually could operate 120 spindles. It broke the bottleneck between productive capacity of spinners and the weavers, but it was still used in the cottage.|
|25. Richard Arkwright||The man who took cotton out of homes and into factories was Richard Arkwright, who invented the water frame in 1769. It was a water-powered device designed to permit the production of a purely cotton fabric rather than a cotton fabric containing linen for durability. Eventually Arkwright lost the patent rights and other factories started to use the machine, starting up near the countryside or near rivers so they could use water power. The cotton industry would boom henceforth.|
|26. Edmund Cartwright||Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom for machine weaving in the late 1780s. Yet not until the 1830s were there more power looms than normal looms.|
|27. James Watt||James Watt invented the steam engine in 1769 to run textile machinery so that factories could move away from rivers and into urban areas. The steam engine vastly increased the available energy, but also made possible the combination of urbanization and industrialization. He partnered with Matthew Boulton, a toy maker, who then also consulted with John Wilkinson to drill the metal cylinders that Watt required. In 1776 the steam engine found its first commercial application pumping water from mines in Cornwall.|
|28. Thomas Newcomen||He invented the first practical engine to use steam power. When the steam that had been introduced into the cylinder condensed, it caused the piston of this device to fall. The Newcomen machine was large and inefficient in its use of energy because both the condenser and the cylinder were heated, and practically untransportable. Despite these problems, English mine operators used the Newcomen machines to pump water out of coal and tin mines.|
|29. William Hogarth||William Hogarth drew engravings of the full darkness of London life during the midcentury “gin age” when consumption of that liquor blinded and killed many poor people.|
|30. Luddites||The Luddites were 19th century textile workers who protested against the newly developed labor-replacing machinery from 1811 to 1817. The stocking frames, spinning frames and power looms introduced during the Industrial Revolution threatened to replace the artisans with less-skilled, low-wage labourers, leaving them without work.|
|31. Urban riots||The lower classes of England and France both felt suppressed, especially by all the changes that were happening. They did not like the fact that land was being enclosed, or machines were arising to take away their jobs.The price of bread was also going up. This caused many to take to the streets and riot because they felt oppressed.|
|32. Lord George Gordon||He raised the specter of an imaginary Catholic plot after the government relieved military recruits from having to take specifically anti-Catholic oaths.|
|33. Ghettos||These were communities where Jews lived, usually in distinct districts in cities. It was a very poor neighborhood.|
|34. Samuel Oppenheimer||He was a court jew who helped the Habsburgs finance their struggle against the Turks and the defense of Vienna.|
Chapter 15 questions:
- What kinds of privileges separated European aristocrats from other social groups?
British Nobility had indirect control over the government; no significant legal privileges. French Nobility were divided into nobles of the sword and nobles of the robe, most lived at Versailles; they had the ability to buy positions in the government; they were exempt from many taxes; they did not have to do corvees or public work; they could collect feudal dues from their tenants and enjoyed fishing and hunting privileges. Eastern European Nobility, in some places (Polish) they were entirely exempt from taxes as well as held the the right from life or death for their serfs; they also had political power. In Austria and Hungary the nobility had judicial powers over the peasants and enjoyed various degrees of exemptions from taxes. In Prussia, after the accession of Frederick the Great, the junkers became much stronger, they made up almost off of the officers in the military. They as in other parts of Europe they had judicial powers over the serfs. In Russia, the nobility was created in the 18th century; they were exempt from person taxes and had power over the serfs.
- How did their privilege and influence affect other people living in the countryside?
The nobility’s power put a heavy burden on the shoulders of the rest of the people. They were under their judicial control and forced to pay taxes.
- What was the condition of serfs in Central and Eastern Europe?
They had absolutely no power; they were thought of as property and in some places their nobles held the right to kill them.
- What are characteristics of rococo art? Use at least three thumbnails in your response to show this.
- Looking for courting, beauty, romance, fun, playfulness, or sexual symbols
The Stolen Kiss by Jean-Honore Fragonard
- 2. Depiction of upper class domestic life
The Breakfast by Francois Boucher
- Pastel colors
A Lady in a Garden taking Coffee with some Children by Nicolas Lancret
- How would you define the term ‘family economy’?
In pre-industrial Europe the household was the basic unit of production and consumption. Few productive establishments employed more than a handful of people not belonging to the family of the owner and those rare exceptions were in cities, most Europeans however lived in rural areas. People under one roof usually worked together to form a business to support themselves, and that is why it is called a “family economy”.
- How did the family economy constrain the lives of women in pre-industrial Europe?
Women’s lives consistent of a continuous effort from the time that they were very young to either earn their keep in their parents household, or to obtain a dowry in order to get married, and once married they did whatever their husbands needed them to do without recognition.
- What community service was provided by the founding hospitals?
The foundling hospitals allowed children who were offered to be received, and that funds should be guaranteed. However, “Coram men” sprang up, and offered families the chance to take their children along with them to the hospitals. They often didn’t take the children there or took them there with cruelty. Total expenses were very high, which alarmed the House of Commons, so they disallowed the indiscriminate admission. The hospital, being on its own, adopted a system where only considerable sums were guaranteeing admission for healthcare.
- What caused the Agricultural Revolution?
Raising grain prices caused by population forces landlords to abort traditional methods and produce revolutionary ideas.
- How did the English aristocracy contribute to the Agricultural Revolution?
They organized generally almost no new farming methods but they popularized ideas developed in the previous century.
10.Why did peasants revolt in the eighteenth century?
The improvement in the agricultural revolution resulted in more food being available; which caused more children to live to adulthood; resulting in a population explosion to the point where the supply was once again overshadowed by the demand. The price of grain went up, which made bread more expensive. Peasants also revolted because they didn’t like the new machines that got rid of their jobs, and also didn’t like the enclosure acts.
- Why did Europe’s population increase in the 18th century?
The improvement in the agricultural revolution resulted in more food being available; which caused more children to live to adulthood; resulting in a population explosion to the point where the supply was once again overshadowed by the demand.
- How did the population growth affect consumption?
Again, there was not enough food.
- What was the Industrial Revolution and what caused it?
The second half of the 18th century witnessed the beginning of the industrialization of the European economy, that achievement of sustained economic growth. It was the beginning of a modern economy, moving away from an agricultural economy; bringing Europeans into the modern world
- Why did Great Britain take the lead in the Industrial Revolution?
Great Britain took the lead in the consumer revolution that expanded the demand for goods, that could be sufficiently supplied. London was the largest city in Europe.
- How did consumers contribute to the Industrial Revolution?
They created the demand for the influx for the industrial goods.
- How did the distribution of population in cities and towns change?
People moved from the countryside to the cities and towns; this was made possible because consumer goods were more available and it was easier to find a job to support themselves. People were less reliant on their own farms for survival.
- How did the lifestyle of the upper class compare to that of the middle and lower classes?
Upper Class: At the top of the urban social structure stood a generally small group of nobles, large merchants, bankers, financiers, clergy and government officials, these upperclassmen controlled the political and economic affairs of the town. Normally, they constituted a self appointed and self elected oligarchy, that governed the city through its corporation or city council. Some form of royal charter usually gave the city corporation its authority and the power to select its own members. In a few cities on the continent a few artisans controlled the corporations but generally the local nobility and a wealthiest commercial people dominated the councils.
Middle Class: Prosperous but not always wealthy; they were merchants or bankers. Lived in the cities or towns and their living had nothing to do with land. Economically and socially ambitious.
Lower Class (Artisans)
- What were some causes of the urban riots?
The most sensitive area to peasants was the price of bread, which was the staple food of the poor. If a baker or a grain merchant announced a price that was considered unjustly high, a riot might well ensue. Artisan leaders would confiscate the bread or grain and sell it for what the urban crowd would consider a just price. They would then give the money paid for the grain or bread to the baker or merchant. Other kinds of riots also characterized eighteenth-century politics. The riot was a way in which people who were excluded in every other way from the political processes could make their will known. For example, in 1753, London Protestant mobs compelled the government to withdraw an act to legalize Jewish naturalization. Shopkeepers and artisans wanted only to restore a traditional right or practice that was endangered. In Great Britain in 1792, the government incited mobs to attack English sympathizers of the French revolution. Such outbursts indicate the crowd or mob had entered the European political and social arena well before the revolution in France.
- Where were the largest Jewish populations in 18th-century Europe?
Most European Jews lived in Eastern Europe. It was concentrated in Poland, Lithuania, and Ukraine.
- Describe the Jewish experience in terms of social and legal issues during this period.
Catherine the Great excluded Jews from a manifesto that welcomed foreign settlers to come to Russia. She revoked the measure a few years later, but Jews still felt segregated. Jews were treated as a distinct people religiously and legally. A few Jews became “court Jews” where they helped pay major rulers for their wars and campaigns in exchange for favoritism and leniency. The court Jews became rich, but many European Jews lived in poverty. Their religious beliefs really set them apart.
Chapter 16 terms and people:
|1. Mercantilism||Economic theory and practice common in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century that promoted governmental regulation of a nation’s economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival national powers. It was the economic counterpart of political absolutism. Its 17th-century publicists—most notably Thomas Mun in England, Jean-Baptiste Colbert in France, and Antonio Serra in Italy—never, however, used the term themselves; it was given currency by the Scottish economist Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations (1776)|
|2. Monopoly||In economic theory and practice common in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century that promoted governmental regulation of a nation’s economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival national powers. It was the economic counterpart of political absolutism. Its 17th-century publicists—most notably Thomas Mun in England, Jean-Baptiste Colbert in France, and Antonio Serra in Italy—never, however, used the term themselves; it was given currency by the Scottish economist Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations (1776)|
|3. Viceroy||Someone who rules a country or province as the representative of his sovereign or king and who is empowered to act in the sovereign’s name. Viceroy was the title given to the principal governors of Spain’s American colonies, as well as to the governors of the “kingdoms” of peninsular Spain.
|4. Fiota system||The Spanish treasure fleet, also called silver fleet, plate fleet , or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790.|
|5. Peninsulares||Any of the colonial residents of Latin America from the 16th through the early 19th centuries who had been born in Spain. The name refers to the Iberian Peninsula. Among the American-born in Mexico the peninsulars were contemptuously called gachupines “those with spurs” and in South America, chapetones “tenderfeet”. They enjoyed the special favour of the Spanish crown and were appointed to most of the leading civil and ecclesiastical posts under the colonial regime.
|6. Creoles||People of Spanish blood born in America. These people arouse to handle the flourishing trade in the Americas and were always very wealthy. They also took the Native Americans to be their slaves and work on their large estates. They soon founded the debt ponage system.|
|7. Middle Passage (of Triangle Trade)||The sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies.|
|8. Robert Jenkins||The war of Jenkins’ Ear, war between Great Britain and Spain that began in October 1739 and eventually merged into the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48). It was precipitated by an incident that took place in 1738 when Captain Robert Jenkins appeared before a committee of the House of Commons and exhibited what he alleged to be his own amputated ear, cut off in April 1731 in the West Indies by Spanish coast guards, who had boarded his ship, pillaged it, and then set it adrift. Public opinion had already been aroused by other Spanish outrages on British ships, and the Jenkins episode was swiftly exploited by members of Parliament who were in opposition to the government of Robert Walpole.|
|9. Maria Theresa||Maria Theresa (1717-1780) was Holy Roman empress from 1740 to 1780. Ruling in the most difficult period of Austrian history, she modernized her dominions and saved them from dissolution. The eldest daughter of the emperor Charles VI, Maria Theresa was born in Vienna on May 13, 1717. Her education did not differ in the main from that given any imperial princess, being both clerical and superficial, even though by the time she was an adolescent it was becoming increasingly probable that Charles would produce no male heir and that one day Maria Theresa would succeed to all his dominions. Charles did not act upon the insistent advice of his most capable adviser, Prince Eugene of Savoy, and marry his daughter off to a prince powerful and influential enough himself to protect her dominions in time of need. Instead he chose to rely upon the fanciful diplomatic guarantees offered by the Pragmatic Sanction. Thus, in 1736 Maria Theresa was permitted to marry for love. Her choice was Duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine. So that France might not object to the prospect of an eventual incorporation of Lorraine into the empire, Francis Stephen was forced to exchange his beloved province for the rather less valuable Tuscany. In spite of this, and even though the marriage in its first 3 years produced three daughters, Maria Theresa was boundlessly happy. Then suddenly, in October 1740, her father died. At the age of 23, without anything in the way of formal preparation, without the least acquaintance with affairs of state, Maria Theresa had supreme responsibility thrust upon her.|
|10. Frederick II||Frederick II (1194-1250) was Holy Roman emperor from 1215 to 1250. His unsuccessful effort to establish a strong centralized Italian state brought him into a long and bitter conflict with the papacy and the Italian urban centers. Born in lesi, Italy, Frederick II was the only son of Emperor Henry VI and of Constance of Sicily. His father died in 1197 and his mother, who served as regent for him, a year later. As the orphan king of Sicily, he was the ward of the great pope Innocent III, who ignored his education and training but kept his kingdom intact for him. Frederick grew up in Palermo, surrounded by factions who attempted to use him for their own ends and influenced by the Islamic and Greek culture that pervaded the dissolute Sicilian court. At first Frederick was ignored in the empire of his father, where his able uncle Philip of Swabia and the Welf Otto IV, son of Henry the Lion, were quarreling over the imperial title. By 1211, however, Philip was dead and Otto IV had broken with Innocent III, who had previously supported him. So, when a group of German nobles asked him to go to Germany to assume the imperial crown, Frederick made his infant son, Henry, king of Sicily and hastened to Frankfurt, where in 1212 he was chosen ruler of Germany. He pacified the papacy, which feared a union between Sicily and the empire, by promising Innocent III that he would abdicate his Sicilian throne in favor of his son and that he would go on a crusade at the earliest opportunity. In 1214 Otto IV was defeated at Bouvines by Frederick’s ally King Philip II (Augustus) of France, and in 1215 Frederick was recognized as emperor-elect by Pope Innocent III, who died a little while later.|
|11. George I, II, and III||George I: 1660–1727, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1714–27); son of Sophia, electress of Hanover, and great-grandson of James I. He became (1698) elector of Hanover, fought in the War of the Spanish Succession, and in 1714 succeeded Queen Anne under the provisions of the Act of Settlement, becoming the first British sovereign of the house of Hanover. He was personally unpopular in England because of his German manners, his German mistresses, his treatment of his divorced wife, Sophia Dorothea, and his inability to speak English. George’s dual role as elector of Hanover and king of England also raised problems; he spent much of his time in Hanover and was widely (although unjustly) believed to be indifferent to English affairs. Yet, despite the uprising of the Jacobites in 1715, his crown was never in danger, for he stood to Englishmen as the guarantee of the “revolution settlement” against a return of the Roman Catholic Stuarts. George’s succession brought the Whigs to power, and the early years of his reign saw constant maneuvering for power among his ministers—the 1st Earl Stanhope, the 3d earl of Sunderland, Viscount Townshend, and Robert Walpole. The principal achievement of these years was the Quadruple Alliance of 1718, which provided an international guarantee of the Hanoverian succession and the status quo of the Peace of Utrecht (1713). Rising to power in the South Sea Bubble crisis, Walpole dominated the end of the reign, beginning his long tenure as virtual prime minister. George was succeeded by his son, George II.
George II: 1683–1760, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1727–60), son and successor of George I. Though devoted to Hanover, of which he was elector, George was more active in the English government than his father had been. Caroline of Ansbach (whom he married in 1705), through the subtle influence she exerted over him, furthered the ascendancy of the great Whig minister, Sir Robert Walpole. The early part of his reign was peaceful and notably prosperous. However, just as George had quarreled with his father over personal matters, so Frederick Louis, prince of Wales, was strongly at odds with the king and became nominal head of the opposition group that ousted Walpole in 1742. In the War of the Austrian Succession, George led his troops in person at the battle of Dettingen (1743)—the last time a British monarch did so. In 1745–46 the last uprising of the Jacobites was suppressed. England was expanding as a commercial and colonial power and clashed with France in India and in America as well as in Europe in the complex struggle known as the Seven Years War (1756–63). The principal ministers after the fall of Walpole were Henry Pelham, his brother, Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of Newcastle, and William Pitt, later earl of Chatham, the architect of England’s victory in the Seven Years War. George was succeeded by his grandson George III.
George III:(1738-1820) was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 to 1820. His long reign witnessed the American Revolution, the defeat of Napoleon, the founding of the “second British empire,” and the decline of monarchical power. Born on June 4, 1738, in London, George III was the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales. Frederick’s death in 1751 left the young George heir apparent to the throne, to which he ascended when his grandfather, George II, died in 1760. As a youth, George was a poor student whose emotional immaturity matched his mental underdevelopment. He formed strong attachments to older men whom he could respect as figures of authority. Abstemious, economical, and morally upright, he worked conscientiously, though unimaginatively, at being king, at preserving the Crown’s dignity, and at maintaining England’s power and honor. He knew the constitutional limits of monarchical power and had no wish to exceed them. With experience he grew adept at using all the Crown’s considerable political influence, supporting one faction against another and employing “secret service money.” Indeed, his skill at these activities lent color to Opposition cries that he exercised “personal rule” and “subverted” the English constitution.
|12. William Pitt the Elder||An English political leader of the eighteenth century. Pitt led the British government in the Seven Years’ War. Although he opposed independence for the American colonies, he worked to change the harsh colonial policies of King George III and his ministers.|
|13. William Pitt the Younger||William Pitt the Younger was called to manage the House of Commons. During the 1784 election, he received immense patronage support from the crown and constructed a House of Commons favorable to the monarch. He sought to form trade policies that would give his ministry broad popularity. He tried one measure of modest parliamentary reform, and when it failed in 1785, he abandoned his cause.|
|14. Frederick the Great||He was the leader of Prussia who attacked Silesia after King Charles III died. This was not in correspondence with the Pragmatic Sanction, which had ensured Maria Theresa’s ascendance to the throne. He reformed the judicial system and won himself military acclaim through his great tactics. He was the ruler who built Prussia into a leading force in Europe. He conquered many Polish territories during the First Partition of Poland.|
|15. John Wilkes||He was a London political radical and member of Parliament who published a newspaper called The North Briton. He strongly criticized Earl Bute’s handling of peace negotiations with France. He was arrested through a general warrant from the secretary of state, and was then outlawed and fled England. Wilkes returned to England in 1768 and was reelected to Parliament, but the House of Commons was influenced by George III’s friends and refused to seat him, even after being reelected 3 more times. He finally became the Lord Mayor of London and got a seat in Parliament.|
|16. Robert Clive||Robert Clive noticed that several of the state administrations in India had weakened. He saw the development as an opportunity to seize power for his company. To maintain his security and to expand privileges, he tried to take over the governments in some of the states so that he could checkmate French control.|
Chapter 16 questions:
- There are four stages of European global interactions listed below. Write a detailed paragraph elaborating on specific details for each one:
- European exploration, discovery, conquest, and settlement.
Since the Renaissance, Europe had created greater contact with the rest of the world. Countries such as Spain, France and Great Britain warred for supremacy over trade and commerce in the areas they controlled. It led to intense rivalry between European powers while trying to subdue the indigenous peoples to acquire their land. They mainly wanted to acquire areas of land that would bring profit to their land, rather than attempting to settle there. For example, the Spanish motto for conquistadors ran “Gold, Glory, and God”. This shows that European powers were interested in treating their conquered peoples with cruelty as long as they came out on top. Discoveries of new lands were made soon after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Portuguese ran around the tip of Africa and made contact with India, where spices were discovered. Columbus sailed across the Atlantic to find the New World, where many prime conflicts would happen as European powers struggled against one another for control.
- European establishment of a mercantile empire
Navies and merchant shipping were the keystones of the mercantile empires that were meant to bring profit to a nation rather than to provide areas for settlement The Treaty of Utrecht established the boundaries of empire during the first half of the eighteenth century. The British empire contained many lands in North America, the Caribbean, and a few trading posts in India. The French covered large chunks of the United States included Louisiana, as well as ports in the Caribbean and in India. India appeared as a vast potential market for European goods, as well as the source of calico cloth and spices that were in great demand in Europe. The Dutch controlled parts of Africa, trading stations in Sri Lanka and India, and had a monopoly on trade in Indonesia.
- European colonization of indigenous people to exert national empires.
European conquerors treated the native peoples poorly. For example, in North America, the British allowed the Native Americans to live on reservations a little bit away from the colonists and their settlements. However, over time, the British continued the push the Native Americans farther and farther away from their lands until they were over the Appalachian Mountains. Similarly, the Spanish conquerors forced the native Incans and Aztecs to surrender gold. European conquerors used the indigenous people for their own profit by exploiting them for labor and riches.
- European decolonization during the 20th
Europe’s powers decided to decolonize their countries after World War II. In the years following, countries such as India were able to earn their independence following revolutions demanding freedom from European control. France was forced out its colonies in Indochina, and this eventually led to the Vietnam War. Britain finally let go of the colony of Hong Kong in 1998.
- Identify goods and diseases exchanged as part of the Columbian Exchange, make note of items that had a big impact and why:
- Old World to New World
- New World to Old World
- For each of the following wars, identify the dates, underlying causes, principle events/leaders, and outcomes:
- War of Jenkins Ear
The War of Jenkin’s Ear was fought from 1739 to 1748. The West Indies had become a hotbed of trade rivalry and illegal smuggling. The Spanish government took its own trade monopoly seriously and searched an English vessel. The Spaniards, on one occasion, chopped off the ear of an English captain named Robert Jenkins. British merchants lobbied Parliament to take action, and Sir Robert Walpole could not resist such pressures.
- War of Austrian Succession
Frederick II seized the German province of Silesia after Maria Theresa ascended the throne. The War of Austrian Succession was fought from 1740-1748. Frederick did not recognize Maria as a legitimate ruler even though her father had passed the Pragmatic Sanction. Maria Theresa was unable to regain Silesia. France drew Great Britain into the war, because Great Britain wanted to make sure the Low Countries remained in the hands of Austria, not France. The war finally ended in a stalemate in 1748.
- Seven Years War
Frederick the Great invaded the German state of Saxony. France and Austria made an alliance to destroy Prussia. Russia joined them along with many other small German states. Prussia was saved because Tsar Peter III liked Frederick and made peace with Prussia, allowing it to hold off Austria and France. After this war, Frederick II became Frederick the Great. William Pitt the Elder placed England against France as they battled across North America. The French Empire in Canada waned as England won the war.
- Battle of Plassey
In India, England under the command of Robert Clive and defeat France and their Indian allies in 1757. This victory opened the way for the eventual conquest of Bengal in northeast India and later of the entire subcontinent by the British.
- American Revolution
The American Revolution began in 1776 with the Declaration of Independence and ended in 1781. The colonists were tired of being taxed so heavily to support England’s wars. The war finally ended with the Treaty of Paris and America’s independence.
- Battle of Saratoga
The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point in the American Revolution. It marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War. British General John Burgoyne led a large invasion army up the Champlain Valley from Canada, hoping to meet a similar force marching northward from New York City; the southern force never arrived, and Burgoyne was surrounded by American forces in upstate New York. Burgoyne fought two small battles to break out. Trapped by superior American forces, with no relief in sight, Burgoyne surrendered his entire army on October 17.
- Identify the key aspects of each treaty:
- Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Ended the Wars of Austrian Succession
Austria recognised Frederick II of Prussia’s conquest of Silesia, as well as renouncing parts of its Italian territories to Spain.
France withdrew from the Netherlands in order to have some of its colonies returned.
- Treaty of Hubertsburg
This marked the ascendancy of Prussia as a leading European power
- Treaty of Paris, 1763
This formally ended the Seven Years’ War, known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre, and marked the beginning of an era of British dominance outside Europe. Britain gained much of France’s possessions in North America.
- Treaty of Paris, 1783
Ended the American Revolution
Gave America independence
- What is the significance of Silesia? Where is it?
Silesia is located in Central Europe, mostly in Poland. It was conquered by Prussia in 1742 in the War of Austrian Succession.
- Which European country is the most powerful at the end of the 18thcentury and why?
Britain was the most powerful. It had ousted many major holdings from France and gained a significant presence in India. France had accumulated much debt, but with British aid, Prussia had become a strong power. It was turning from a European power into a first-world power.
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