Battle of Pensacola

Battle of Pensacola 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch


5 Sources: Related to topic
1 source must be a book
2 sources must be a scholarly, peer-reviewed article
800-900 words
12-point Times New Roman
1-inch margins

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The Battle of Pensacola was one of the wars fought as result of American Revolution. The American forces fought against the United Kingdom (Britain), Spain, African American slaves, as well as Creek Native Americans, allied to the Briton. General Andrew Jackson, an American commander, led the war against the British forces that took control and oppressed Spaniards at Pensacola city which was part of Spanish Florida.  Commander Jackson defeated the British army who abandoned and surrendered the city. The paper will look at the causes and effects of the Battle of Pensacola.

Causes of the War

The Spanish forces attacked and successfully captured Mississippi and Louisiana which was under British control. A Spanish forces commander, General de Galvez in northern America was concerned about the Pensacola City occupied by the British. In 1781, the Spanish naval forces landed in Santa Rosa Islands with over 3,500 men and 40 ships. The forces attempted to occupy protectorate that resulted in the Battle of Pensacola.  The Spanish took the two months to occupy Pensacola ending British’s 18-year occupation.  Pensacola remained under the control of the Spanish for almost 40 years before they finally renounced her control in the year 1819.

The battle of Pensacola involved three different groups of people that included Spanish, British and the Americans[1].  Pensacola was the biggest Spanish capital in western Florida. The British after initial defeat in 1781 occupied and controlled Pensacola Bay.  The city was an essential foothold on the British control of Florida.  Jackson Andrew and the American troops wanted to liberate Spaniard who suffered under British Army.

The Pensacola City had just over one thousand people.  The settlement on the Pensacola Bay had the Fort San Miguel and Santa Island fort that protected and helped in the control of the upper gulf.  Commander Jackson used the Creek at the Horseshoe route in Alabama that led to the establishment of some to the suffering Red Stick Indians[2].  The British were again interested in making their presence felt in Pensacola by 1814. The British under Major Nicholls Edward slowly occupied Pensacola without permission from Spanish governor Don Mateo Marquez.  The British had clear intentions to control the Gulf region and threatened to destroy the Spaniard if they assisted American troops. In September, Major Nicholls and the British attacked Mobile but were unsuccessful after which the Spanish government stopped cooperating with the occupying forces[3]. The arrival of Americans and the deteriorating relationship with the Spaniards, the British fled the town only to consolidate at Santa Rosa and Fort San Carlos battery[4].  Jackson with a 4000 men military escalated their attacks on November 7, 1814.

[1]              David S. Heidler, and Jeanne T. Heidler. Battle of Pensacola. American History. 2000

[2]              Mahon, John K. The War of 1812 John K. Mahon. John K. Mahon. Gainesville: University of Florida Press. 1972.


[3]              Friend, Jack. West wind, flood tide: the Battle of Mobile Bay. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press. 2004

[4]              Cheek Jr., Gary C. 2009. “Pre-removal Choctaw History: Exploring New Paths”. Ethnohistory. 56 (2): 336-338.