Choose either a food commodity or a form of technology involved in European food production or consumption. Your assignment is to determine how that commodity or example of technology fits into the historical development of European food systems between the years 1850 and 1950.
In the case of an aspect of technology: in what way, if any, was your example designed to overcome a particular problem in food production, distribution, or consumption? Or was your example only coincidentally tied to food? What conditions aided or impeded the use of your example? Were there specific circumstances of the period 1850 to 1950 that made its integration into the European economy and society imperative?
(I have a basic outline already and the sources that should be used, i have copied the sections from the sources that i think should/ can be used… i have put all of this in a word document) AT LEAST 4 sources should be referred to but i have more so you can use as many as you like.
Canning is the food preservation method that use hermetical seals and sterilized heat containers to prevent food from spoilage. Before the invention of canning method, people had limited ways of keeping their food from spoiling that included curing, smoking, and drying (Shephard 231). Salting aimed at drawing moisture from the fish and other meat types before drying or smoking. The taste of the salted meat was disgusting and unhealthy. Alternatively, the people could cook the meat and pot fish under a solid topping of pork, goose fat of pastry pie. The method preserved the cooked meat over several days (Shephard 231). The people immersed fish and meat in tubs and barrels and fed the Nelson’s Navy. Bottling was a precursor of canning where fruits and vegetables were cooked in vinegar, brine, oil or brandy before sealing them in bottles. The canning methods changed the quality and freshness of the food. The methods were time-consuming and difficult to perform them correctly. The French government offered a hefty prize (12, 000 francs) to any inventor who could offer effective and cheap large food preservation method.
In 1795, Europe was fighting the Napoleonic Wars. The soldiers needed a way of keeping their food from spoiling as “An army marches on its stomach”. At the same time, the sailors at the sea were developing scurvy disease while at the sea due to poor foods. The large army during these wars required a large and regular supply of quality food. A French brewer and confectioner, Nicolas Appert responded to the government’s call (Shepard 226). In 1809, Appert invented food preservation method that involved putting food in a tightly sealed jar or bottle and won the prize. According to Shepard (2000), the food jar was heated using certain temperature and need maintenance of the heat for certain period (231). Later, the container would remain tightly sealed until consumption.
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