Explain the cause for low calcium and sodium levels in End-Stage Kidney Disease

Explain the cause for low calcium and sodium levels in End-Stage Kidney Disease 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

Physiology: Signature Assignment
For your signature assignment, compose a 3- to 4-page case analysis (in addition to a
title, abstract, and a reference page) written in APA format with at least 3 references,
with one non-Internet reference.
The following should be covered in the paper:
• Title page: Case title, full name, section, date, instructor, and campus
• Abstract: Summarize the case.
• Introduction: Explain the physiological importance of the liver, pancreas, and
kidneys for the proper functioning of the human body.
• Body: Respond to the prompts. Organize your analysis with headings that
thoroughly answer the prompts (e.g., “Calcium and Sodium Imbalance” should be
the heading for question 1).
• Conclusion: Summarize the paper in a paragraph.
By submitting this paper, you agree to the following: (1) you are submitting your paper to be used and
stored as part of the SafeAssign services in accordance with the Blackboard Privacy Policy; (2) your
institution may use your paper in accordance with your institution’s policies; and (3) your use of
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End-Stage Kidney Disease
Sarah, a 63-year-old female with a past medical history significant for diabetes mellitus,
cirrhosis, gout, and a 30-pack a year smoking history presents to the emergency room
with chest pain revealing pericarditis in the echocardiogram, secondary to recently
diagnosed end-stage renal disease. Physical examination reveals yellowish
discoloration to the skin and sclera, multiple bruises, 2+ bilateral edema, and weakness
lasting more than three weeks. Her medications include Glisten, a new drug for diabetes
that causes ATP sensitive potassium channels to close, thereby releasing insulin. Her
recent laboratory results are as follows:
Sodium 126 mEq/L
Glucose 220 mmol/L
Calcium 7.1 mg/dl
Red blood cell count 3.9 cells/ul
Blood Pressure 92/64 mmHg
Blood Gases
pH 7.28
CO2 30 mmHg
HCO3 12 mmol/L
Hormone Panel
Renin Low
ADH Elevated
Aldosterone Low
Vit D Low
Vit K Low
Vit E Low
Vit A Low
Urine and Stool Sample
Stool color Gray
Stool content Increased Fat Content
Urine color White
Rev 12-17-17
Please address each of the following regarding Sarah’s case:
1. Explain the cause for her low calcium and sodium levels.
2. Explain the cause of her anemia. What laboratory test should indicate she is
suffering from anemia?
3. Explain the cause of her hypotension. How will her body attempt to establish
4. What type of acid-base disorder has she developed, and how will her body
5. Explain the cause of her elevated ADH and glucose levels.
6. What is the correlation between her illnesses and the low vitamins (D, K, E, and
A), renin, and aldosterone levels?
7. Which hormone would the body elevate in response to her low calcium levels?
8. Explain the physiological reason behind her physical findings (yellowish hint of
the skin, sclera, multiple bruises, weakness, and edema).
9. Explain the cause of her abnormal stool and urine sample.
10. What cell does Glisten work on? Explain how this medication is able to stimulate
insulin secretion.
Support your opinions with evidence from your readings and research.
Review the rubric for complete grading criteria.