Explain the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the 3 cancer hallmarks; genomic instability and mutation , sustaining proliferative signalling + evading growth suppressors and finally inducing angiogenesis . Then explain how understanding of these molecular events is improving cancer therapies i.e understanding of cell signalling pathways like MAPK/MEK has led to targeted therapies for HER2 positive breast cancer like Herceptin .
Below are the three named examples to be discussed in the essay:
1. Parp inhibitors ; Olaparib (used to treat BRAC1 +BRAC2 mutated ovarian cancer ) ; genome instability
3. MAPK/MEK pathway inhibitor: Herceptin ; ( her 2 positive breast cancer treatment ) ;suppression of cell growth +proliferation ; targeted therapy .
3. Angiogenesis /VEGF inhibitor; Avastin (used to treat renal cell carcinoma) ; prevents induction of angiogenesis.
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