Historical View of Super PACs and its Effect in the Writing of the Legislation

Historical View of Super PACs and its Effect in the Writing of the Legislation 150 150 Affordable Capstone Projects Written from Scratch

Description

This is an IRR assignment for my AP Seminar Class. The following things are needed:
– Cannot be biased and requires a problem within the introduction
– Must be in third person language!
– Requires at least 3 solutions in the end
– Historical Lens
– Analysis of the sources when used in the paper
Thank You!!!!!!!

Answer preview

Introduction

According to Jamison and Gina (2012), they define super Political Action Committees (PACs) as federally registered committees that are self-governing and that support candidates in federal elections with unlimited donations from an unlimited number of labor unions, individuals or companies. Super PACs receive unlimited donations from the members and have unrestricted indirect expenditures towards gathering votes for a candidate or defeating candidates.[1] Gulati states that Super PACs are answerable to the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and must give information about the donors. However, the sources of the money remains anonymous. Super PACs can support their favorable candidate through running ads supporting the candidate or by supporting negative ads about a candidate they do not support.[2] According to those in support of Super PACs, they represent freedom for unions, individuals, and companies to support the election or defeat of unfavorable candidates. According to Wozniak, Super PACs have raised concern among the challengers of their formation on the impact of Super PACs on election outcomes and they hold that the warning given to the super PACs not to coordinate with the candidates they support is difficult to uphold and are disappointed by the propagation of negative ads by super PACs against opponent candidates. [3]

History of Super PACs

In 1907, the Congress limited corporate funding towards federal elections by banning any contributions. The ban by the Congress was extended to cover labor unions and expenditure by corporates. Later, individual contributions were limited by an enactment of Congress, in 1974, that limited contributions to federal candidates and committees. The limitations got enacted after the Watergate scandal. In 2010 the term Super PACs first emerged after two major court rulings, Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and SpeechNow v. Federal Election Commission. In the words of Hamm et. al. the U.S Supreme Court rulings removed the limitations that got placed on PACs, and the new Super PACs are allowed to make independent expenditures.[4]

[1] Jamison, Derrick D., and Gina Gore. 2012. Super PACS (Political Action Committees): the new force in federal elections. New York, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers.

[2] Gulati, Girish J. “Super PACs and Financing the 2012 Presidential Election.” Society 49, no. 5 (2012), 409-417. doi:10.1007/s12115-012-9575-3.

[3] Wozniak, Brittney. “Do Super PACs Forfeit First Amendment Rights When They Restructure as Hybrid PACs?: The Implications of Vermont Right to Life v. Sorrell.” University of Pittsburgh Law Review 77, no. 3 (2016). doi:10.5195/lawreview.2016.407.

[4] Hamm, Keith E., Michael J. Malbin, Jaclyn J. Kettler, and Brendan Glavin. “Independent Spending in State Elections, 2006–2010: Vertically Networked Political Parties Were the Real Story, Not Business.” The Forum 12, no. 2 (2014). doi:10.1515/for-2014-5003.


 

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