Proofread: Incidence of suicide and depression in Australia.

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Incidence of suicide and depression in Australia.


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Depression as entails a state of mind characterized by leaps of lowness in mood and inactiveness that is affects one’s thoughts, behavioural functioning as well as lone feelings. In most cases, depression is attached to negative life events and experiences. Suicide, on the other hand, is an act of self-life termination that is linked to depression and other devastating life events. Australia is one of the countries with an escalated levels of depression and suicide cases.


Depression and suicide are life acts and experiences that have resilient operations which counter their happening. Studies have shown that creation of both family and friend connections tackles the depression issue which inconsequent, helps curb suicidal cases. On the same note, depression is attributed to different causative factors including; life events that induce stress, trauma, mental ill-health, sickness, drug and substance abuse and unbearable life events. Actually, most victims of suicide are always on the run to cut-off the pains they may be going through and not their lives accordingly.

Elongated periods of depression impacts negatively to the normal operation of family and personal related tasks. In this case study, the state of Australian citizens is analyzed in detail and probable causes attributed to this is laid down. In addition, this study also puts down the quantitative statistics of both depression levels and suicidal events.






Incidence of suicide in Australia

Australian population composition and economical studies depicts that most people are busy at their normal job operations. Parents in this case have little to no time to stay around with their kids. This contributes significantly to the rate of growth of suicidal cases, attempts and thoughts. In 2007, statistics shows that 2500 Australians were reported to have committed suicide. (Harrison et al, 2009; De Leo, et al 2010). Also, 31,501 citizens were admitted in several hospitals in the same year with issues related to self-harm. (AIHW, 2009). Young generation members In Australia prefer suicide over actual car accidents. Suicide is termed as one of the leading cause of death 15-44 years age bracket members. (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003). According to gender-based statistics, 75% of those who related to suicide cases are men while 25% are females. More so, 65,000 cases of suicidal attempts are reported annually and 400,000 people are reported to have suicidal thoughts. In rural areas and highly remote locations, cases of suicide by hanging are frequently witnessed. (Hunter et al., 2001). In some of these areas, the high level of death and suicide cases have resulted in less awareness creation thus making self-harm and suicide are treated as normal acts ( though it is by no means acceptable in the community). (Farrelly, 2008). This happenings has resulted in generational inheritance of grief and trauma, conditions that champions for the use of drugs and substances, self-harm and continuous involvement in acts that are centered to self-harm. Despite the large number of suicide cases, there Australia as a country does not have any laid down strategy that accounts for the causative agents of suicide. This in turn explains the reason as to why no one is held responsible and accountable with specific roles in helping curb the issues of suicide in Australia. Recently, there are plans that aims at establishing health reforms so that greater emphasis is attributed to health re-balancing with focus on the creation of mitigation and prevention schemes. Furthermore, financial structures have also been developed to address the situation, however, it still remains unclear if the steps will help clear out the health problems and the social sector problem (suicide).

The incidence of depression in Australia

Depression is a common health disorder that is witnessed in Australia. It is the third highest of all disease burdens in Australia and in the entire world. (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2014) and (World Health Organization, 2008). Depression occurs due as a chain in combination with other disorders e.g. Anxiety and drug abuse. Anxiety is a state that leads to depression and in the attempt to seek for self-remedy to this conditions, studies have shown that many people tend to go for drugs and substance abuse. Data shows that 20% of Australian citizens undergo mental sickness every year. Mental sickness as a whole describes the feeling of anxiety, depression and ultimate abuse of drugs. Of the 20%, 11.5% experience one disorder and 8.5% undergo two or more of the disorders. Furthermore, health reports found out that almost half of the Australian population (45%) undergoes several cases of mental illness in their entire lifetime. Depression and mental sickness are very prevalent from mid-adolescent age to the late youthful years (18-24 years) than in any other age bracket. Depression is also categorized as the topmost cause of less dangerous disabilities as compared to other illness in Australia with 23% rank. (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2014). This signifies that people living with depression disability tend to have a longer lifespan as compared to those suffering from other less dangerous illness like loss of hearing and dementia. Statistical modelling and projection depict that by 2030, depression will be the number one health concern both by the 3rd world countries and the developed states. (World Health Organization, 2008).




Community group at risk due to prevalent depression cases.

According to world health organization reports on Adolescents depression cases, youths ranging from early adolescent age (15 years) to late 20’s are the ones at high risk of depression cases. In most cases, these cases go unnoticed as they seem timid to share it out or create a connection to someone who can be of great help to their situation. The only solution that seems importance has always been suicide, which is highly discouraged by the World Health Organization.

Teenage and adolescent depression is a situation that gathering momentum and early address of the same will highly be recognized. In most cases, the level of depression always develops rapidly when one lacks someone to share the situation with. Australian parents and guardians tend to be focused much on their daily duties without having the interests of their young ones at heart. This has led to the introduction of mental lessons into the Australian schools with lessons covering areas such as life tolerance skills, body image acceptance, resilience and development of self-esteem. These lessons are meant to impact positively on the Australian economic set-up as well as its social aspect of life. It should be made known to across Australia that depression is a treatable condition and addressing it during early stages brings up complete citizens whose activeness will be of significance to the economy.

Community group at risk for attribution to suicide.

The Australian Bureau of Statistics shows the rising cases of suicide among women and teenage girls. In 2005, 3,027 people lost their lives by committing suicide. Of these, 2,292 comprised of men while 735 were men. Men statistics is thrice that of women, however, the latest statistics show a 26% increase in suicide cases among women and teenage girls. No major reason has been found to be the cause of the rising statistics. In 2015, the number of women committing suicide had risen to 56, a 45% change from 38 in the prior year.

Besides the two major highly risk-prone groups, there exists another group, the LGBT (Lesbians, gays, bi-sexual and the transgender community) group. The first point that makes them susceptible to suicide is the sex acceptance stage where one fails to identify him/her self with a given sexuality. Again, the rate of women in the LGBT community attempting suicide is higher than that of men. Women 28% while men stand at 20.8%.








  1.    Q1. Critically discuss three (3) factors that may have contributed to the development of the clients’ mental health concerns and risks.

Jill has been going through a series of life events that have contributed to the negative state of mind that she has developed. In the first instance, loss of her mum is a focal point when it comes to the state of her mind. The state in which she lost her mother has really left her un-attached as she does not have anyone to share her want may be going through her mind. Her dad actually is the best alternative; however, he poses to be too busy in his job which since he has to provide for the needs of the family.


Stress has also contributed majorly to Jill’s mental problems. Fluctuation in relationship stability and the complexity of her training are the factors that are inducing stress in her life. The struggle she displays while trying to achieve the requirement both at the workplace and school are shown in the magnitude of stress that she faces. She has to struggle as she tries to integrate between what is expected of her where she is employed and what she expects to achieve on her personal basis.

Drug and alcohol consumption has also contributed to Jill’s devastated condition. It’s very surprising that Jill took an overdose of drugs that she cannot recall vividly. Trying to imagine if she had maintained her sober mind, it would not be evident that she consumed an overdose of unknown tablets.

The consumption of a whole bottle of wine is another act that needs to be checked. This is what championed everything that Jill was going through. Drug and alcoholic contents tend to magnify the negative events of the mind.


Q2. Define and discuss the ethical principles of beneficence and non-maleficence and aspects of the Mental Health Act 2014 W.A. which are relevant to the areas of risk in the case study. Beneficent as a term in nursing refers to the act or the real activity by which something is done for the benefit of others. Here, all the priority is supposed to be given to Jill so as a health practitioner, she ought not to be neglected or intimidated in your presence. To add on, beneficent actions implies to the steps taken to help prevent or remove harm or rather to improve the prevailing worst conditions.


On the legal part of the discussion with Jill, giving her chance to air out what she was going through is a great area of concern that adheres to the legal standards required. Without considering the priority of the patient and carefully noting what he/she explains, one will have gone against the ethical considerations in the health docket.

On the legal part of the discussion, Jill’s health and constitutional requirements were not adhered to. Normally, one is always allowed to collect any patient data without his or her consent. In this case, Jill is anxious, agitated and distressed due to the prevailing life events and her state of mind. It is required by law that a patient is supposed to gain consciousness and personal consent before any data is collected from him/her. That is the only justifiable legal requirement in the health sector.


In the medical sector, two types of beneficence exist. Ideal beneficence involves extreme acts of generosity that a practitioner shows towards his/her patients. The main aim of all these is to make sure that the needs of the patient are met for the ultimate wellbeing of the patient. A medical practitioner, either as a nurse, Doctor or any physician, you are entitled to warm, open and generous treatment of your patients for his/her wellbeing by default. This is what is referred to as obligatory beneficence.


The non-maleficence principle, on the other hand, has several provisions. Non-maleficence is a term meaning, do harm. All health workers and practitioner are obligated to refrain from any form of malice to the patient or administration of poor medication that may cause harm to the patient.


According to this principle, medical practitioners are not supposed to administer wrong medication to the patients and should not have any personal benefit attached to the service. This principle further provides that in case a practitioner harms the patient, there should be a similar beneficial accompaniment of equal proportion to the patient. However, the principle does not have any provision in that addresses cases where medications procedures and interventions cause harm in addition to the benefits attained by the patient.

Problems arise when one tries to balance between these two principles in the health sector. It is purposed that the benefits reaped from the procedures and any act should outweigh the risks associated with the same. These are some of the provisions that were amended in the Mental Health Act 2014. W.A.


Q3. Identify a high priority mental health risk from the case study, and provide two (2) relevant nursing interventions.

Explain the rationale and the potential impact on the client for each intervention associated with the risk identified (Note: the interventions should be within the nurse’s scope of practice). Remember to support your discussion by referring to contemporary literature.

High priority mental risks in the case study include;

Untreated mental illness

Lack of prioritization of disorders.

In this case, the patient ought to have been attended to first on matters concerning drug abuse and excessive consumption of alcoholic contents. These were the activities that were to be attended to in the first instance.

Before asking or discussing anything further with the patient, his mental depression ought to have been attended so that he maintains the state of stillness before anything else.


Incidences of mental health





In conclusion,

Mental illness is a condition that impacts negatively on someone’s social life. The way one creates a connection with others really helps in making sure that he/she maintains health balance. Health practitioner in conjunction with other stakeholders and the government should join hands in making sure that the depression and suicide pandemic among citizens of all ages are shunned down.



















Rosenstreich G. LGBTI Health Alliance, 2013; LGBTI People: Mental Health and Suicide.

Revised 2nd Edition. Sydney, New South Wales


World Health Organization, 2014; World Health Organization, Calouste Gulbenkian

Foundation. Social determinants of mental health. Geneva


Government of Western Australia, 2013; Drug and Alcohol Office. Alcohol and Other Drug Indicators

Report – North Metro Region 2006-2010

Harris EC, Barraclough B., 1997; Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders. A meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry

Beautrais AL, Joyce PR, Mulder RT., 1999; Cannabis abuse and serious suicide attempts.

Hunt IM, Kapur N, Robinson J, Shaw J, Flynn S, Bailey H, et al., 2006; Suicide within 12 months of mental health service contact in different age and diagnostic groups: the National Clinical Survey. The British Journal of Psychiatry.

Tatz C., 2005; Aboriginal suicide is different: A portrait of life and self-destruction. Canberra, ACT: Aboriginal Studies Press.

Jakobsen I, Christiansen E., 2011; Young People’s risk of suicide attempts in relation to parental death: a population-based register study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.