Early and Modern Newspapers
A newspaper by definition refers to printed paper that is distributed on a weekly or daily basis and may contain news, articles of features, advertising and opinion. It is a publication which appears frequently and regularly and may carry news concerning different events that are occurring at the time. Organizations like religious groups, trade unions, clubs or corporations may own their particular newspapers, but the term may be used commonly to refer to the weekly or daily publications which bring news that is of a general interest towards large parts of the public within a particular geographic region. The literature below focuses on the comparison and discourse analysis between newspapers created in the 17th century (the 1600s) and the current day newspapers.
History of Newspapers…………………………………………………………………………………………..5
Publishing in 1600s………………………………………………………………………………………………7
Publishing Today Compared to the 1600s……………………………………………… ……………8
Language Used in 1600s Newspapers…………………………………………………………………….10
Language Used in Modern World Newspapers………………………………………………………..10
Characteristics of Headlines in the 17th Century………………………………………………………11
Characteristics of Headlines Today………………………………………………………………………..12
Level of Government Control in both……………………………………………………………………..13
Comparison of Main Topics Discussed ………………………………………………………………….16
Technological Improvement and differences in Newspapering…………………………………18
Efficiency of Information Distribution in Modern World compared to the 1600s…………20
There was once a period when the newspapers used to be a primary information source. For centuries, the old papers were irreplaceable as they featured significant historical events like World War 1 and 2, The Civil War, Great Depression, Pearl Harbor, among others. All the events that occurred during the 17th century have been kept in a record within numerous newspapers, and they may be searched through extensive collections with documentation containing details of multiple historical events around the globe. The paper below will focus mainly on the differences and similarities that exist between the early newspapers and those that are currently being used to convey essential public information. The main objectives in the research paper include:
- Objective 1: Learning about the History of Newspapers in the 1600s and that of the modern world.
- Objective 2: Researching the similarities and Differences between them and the ones today in terms of mode of distribution, headline features, the main topics of interests, the technological advancements and Efficiency in Distributing Information.
- Objective 3: The level of Government Interference both today and in the 17th
History of Newspapers
Humans used to exchange information long before they learned how to write. The news was spread through word of mouth on the crossroads, at markets and campfires. Messengers would race back and forth from battlefields with various reports on defeats and victories. Criers were people who used to walk through the villages making announcements on the deaths, marriages, births and also divorces. Stories concerning unlikely occurrences would spread throughout the preliterate communities.
During the 1600s, the printed newspapers were being used in Europe, and they would be published on a weekly basis particularly in the year 1609 (Love, 2018). The papers, however, would evade prosecution by the government by not naming the cities where they were being printed. Printing of newspapers was a practice that rapidly spread throughout Europe. The printed weeklies would appear in Basel in 1610 while in Vienna and Frankfurt it was done in 1615 (Love, 2018).
The oldest newspaper that was written in English may appear to have been published in 1620 Amsterdam by van Keere, that was a Dutch print engraver and map living in London for a couple of years (Love, 2018). The very first newspaper did not have a title, and during the early years, they did not have names that were consistent. In 1622, there came the weekly Newes that was from Italy, and it was the very first news book to have a publication date on the title page (Love, 2018).
Over a long and complicated history course, newspapers have undergone numerous transformations. Examining the historical roots of newspapers may assist in shedding some light regarding the manner in which the press has been evolving into a medium that is multifaceted which is today. The scholars today credit Ancient Romans with the first newspaper published.
During the seventeenth century, the colonial governments opted to do without the newspapers instead of brooking their annoyance. However, it was not until the year 1690 that the new sheet debut of English- American was published by Benjamin Harris (Love, 2018). The authorities at the time had high resentment that Harris had the guts to report the English military that had allied itself with the “savages,” and he was put out of business after four years (Love, 2018).
Newspapers in the Current World
The modern world newspapers are somehow different from the old ones. The news contained in the general-circulation of newspapers is initially gathered and later written by the reporters. The photographers shoot pictures to accompany the graphic artists and stories that contribute some diagrams and charts. The editors sometimes assign the stories to the reporters to check on them, write their headlines and determine whether the information would be included in the newspaper. The chief editor supervises the newspaper staff whereas the publisher has complete overall control of the news operations and its business.
Several characteristics may define the newspapers being produced today. They have a short and snappy headline, the first sentence is usually a summary of whatever the story entails, and they are written in the third person and also past tense. The newspaper report is split into different paragraphs which helps the readers to understand information. Quotations and also speech remarks are used to make the news more interesting. A photograph with a caption is used to provide the reader with more information. Facts and opinions are used in the newspaper. Advertisements, instruction manuals, and brochures are well indicated in the newspaper.
Publishing in the 1600s (In British and America)
The debut of the British press was made in early years of the 17th century. The coverage of the news used to be restricted towards the foreign affairs for an extended period while the first English newspaper was translated by Nathaniel Butter who printed the Dutch coranto in 24th September 1621. Butter was said to have published several streams of announcements and warnings (avisos and corantos) that stated in 1622 (Williams, 2009). However, any prospective publisher during the 17th century would be confronted by several difficulties. They needed a license for publishing whatever was required including the regular reporting censorship which operated ever since the early days while foreign news did not appear anymore due to the Court Decree that was in force from 1632 through 1638. It banned the accounts publication of the famous, “30 years’ war” (Williams, 2009).
Publishers enjoyed a particular short spell of freedom between the star chamber abolition that was in 1641 from the official control that had numerous restrictions. Domestic news publication started to appear more on a regular basis, shedding the original form of the book. The headlines and news continued to replace the outdated title page.
The Civil Wars (1642 through 1651) was a significant stimulus to the publishers and reporters as well as 300 different distinct publications which would be brought out between 1640 and 1660 though most of them were occasional simple reports that were from the battle. Some of the contemporary newspapers would use words such as Scout, Post, Intelligence or Spy within their names depicting the level of bellicosity during the period (Williams, 2009). There was a parliamentary victory which resulted in strict control over the press (1649-1658) as well as the restored monarchy which was absolute with the press restricted to only two official papers (Williams, 2009).
During the licensing period act between 1662 and 1694, the press official surveyor was provided with the sole privilege of having the newspapers published. There was a particular established concept of “Newspaper of Record” that was founded in 1665 and then renamed as the “London Gazette” in a few months. Between 1688 and 1689, there was a Glorious Revolution which resulted into the return towards publishing laws that were more permissive while the very first provincial presses got set up beginning in 1690, the “Worcester Post Man.” (Tucker & Unwin, 2018)
In North America, newspaper publication was deterred during the colonial periods by the British law, but the United States after attaining independence had one of the least restrictive rules with regards to release (Williams, 2009). The very first attempt at publishing was made in Boston by Benjamin Harris, in 1690 but his monthly series was stopped almost immediately by the Massachusetts governor who made it abundantly clear that the colonies would not permit the freedom of speech by the nonofficial press (Williams, 2009).
Publishing Today Compared to the 1600s.
The 21st century has witnessed improvement of computers which has significantly changed the newspaper publishing process today. Today, the reporters can save a lot of time through sending main facts regarding their own stories through emails. Editors can quickly make the necessary corrections using spell checkers. The articles get shuffled from a single page to another while color pictures and graphics make those newspapers even more attractive (Clark-Johnson, 2008). However, unlike the 1600s, the publishing costs have increased significantly thereby driving numerous publications out of the printing business. The costs of the newspaper today is also way higher than in the 17th century.
Unlike the 17th century where numerous restrictions were governing the publications, today they are more lenient. After the final Renaissance phase, there was a rapid alteration that was in the newspaper industry as well as the period after the censorship in 1679 collapsed. Several titles, as well as trends, have appeared shaping the modern day newspaper. That period is owed for the idea that developed on the tropical magazine which was the first attempt ever towards producing daily newspapers (Clark-Johnson, 2008).
The printed newspaper today has several strengths and weaknesses. Some of the advantages include geographical selectivity, the daily delivery, selectivity of particular interest, as well as an intensive coverage of the particular geographic market. Newspapers today can also reach the well-educated audiences, they have flexibility regarding advertisement size, and they are also portable unlike those in the 1600s which were transported at a much slower rate attributed to the poor road conditions (Clark-Johnson, 2008). In the modern world, the combination of capacity to reach the prospective consumers along with the readers’ purchasing power keeps them viable as a medium of advertisement. Newspapers during the 17th century did not reach a wide range of audiences as people would pass around the papers to others after reading them due to their scarcity. Newspapers continue offering the advertisers the capacity to target the various market segments through the zip codes, and they usually provide the particular sections or the niche publications like the ones that focus on school events, holidays, weddings, etc (Clark-Johnson, 2008). Today, there is increased the number of advertising in newspapers compared to those in the 17th century. They started including advertisements during the early 1600s. However, some weaknesses of newspapers today include the low quality regarding color reproduction; they cannot deliver motion and sound while some messages may be competing with each other. Today people read the newspapers significantly at a lower rate than the 17th century. According to ZenithOptimedia, the time which readers in the modern world spend to read papers has dropped with over 25% between the year 2010 and 2014 (Clark-Johnson, 2008). That has been a concern for the advertisers with an equal drop in their promotion and exposure. Language Used in 1600s’ Newspapers.
Most of the languages during the period underwent significant vowel shifts during the 17th century. There was a dramatic and sudden change in various linguistic terms and it was during that period that English was losing pure vowel sounds of many European languages and due to the phonetic pairing that was between short and long vowel sounds. A significant contributing factor to the change was the Romance language used in Europe during the time. The newspaper written in English just used to carry the news without any significant comment which was regarded to be against the journalism principles (Clark-Johnson, 2008). However, the language of newspapers started changing in terms of style featured by particular styles of communication and purposes.
Language in the Modern World Newspapers
The language in the 21st century employed in the newspapers differs from the one used in the 1600s period. They vocabularies used in the modern world have dictionaries with specific features such as the unique economic and political terms. They also have cliché’s, abbreviations and neologisms which may have been absent in the 17th-century newspapers (Taiwo, 2007).
Newspaper cliché’s such as the stereotyped expressions are commonly being used today. They include words such as “free markets, public opinion, pressing or crucial issues, political correctness, zero tolerance, etc. In line with Taiwo (2007), they reflect the traditional way in which newspapers today are being written. They are commonly viewed as the conventional way of expression within the newspaper writing. They, however, prompt some significant associations in addition to preventing misunderstanding or ambiguity.
Abbreviations are some of the new items that are featured in the reports as well as headlines. The organization names state and public bodies, the political associations, companies and industries, offices, etc. that are commonly known by the abbreviations. There is a widespread utilization of initials within the newspapers that have been expanded towards the person’s names that are constant in the public eye. Sometimes, there are statements which are referred to by their initials such as F.A.Q, BTW, 9/11, etc (Taiwo, 2007).
Neologisms are some common vocabulary in the newspaper. They are quick towards reacting to new developments within the society, technology, and science. Neologisms, therefore, find their way into the newspaper language. Taiwo (2007) maintains that Biological science and medicine have brought up new words from the business world. Foreign words coming from different styles are also being included in the newspapers today. Complex sentence construction is a common practice in the newspaper typing today, with some verbal constructions (Taiwo, 2007). Regarding grammatical parameters, newspaper writing uses complex sentences that have a developed clause system. Attributive nouns are used to effect brevity within the news items.
Characteristics of the Headlines in the 17th Century
The characteristic coverage and headlines within the 1600s included tropical events and issues. Activities that would have been of interest to the public were involved in the headlines. Domestic news publications started to appear on a much more regular basis. The titles and news began to appear much more frequently on the headlines during the 17th century (Cutlip, 2013). Political events and proceedings were prioritized and included in the headlines. Campaigns that were alarming and had the attention of many people were included as well. There were vivid designs including cartoons, graphic illustrations, and photographs that were used (Cutlip, 2013). Also, the supplements on Sundays focusing on the stories of human interests were also part of the headlines during the period.
Characteristics of the Headlines Today
In the 21st century, headlines have to be easily readable, appropriate and straightforward towards the type of paper which they are printed to catch the attention of the readers. The word choice for the headlines is significantly impacted by the reader that is associated with a particular newspaper. Sometimes, however, the headlines may be ambiguous whenever a specific word is wrongly interpreted (Dor, 2003).
Similarly to the old newspapers, the modern ones also strive to capture the attention of the reader. However, these days, there has been an omission of words or use of short words. Such include words which may not have an intrinsic meaning. Short words are also added such as “raid” for robbery, “aid” for assistance and “row” for argument. Headlines today also have a visual function that did not exist in the ancient times (Cutlip, 2013). They may use a picture to provide meaning for a particular word. For instance, a story may have some sense if it is accompanied by a picture of a plane that has crashed.
Headlines also carried certain qualities. For instance, they are believable. Simple fonts are also used such as “All Caps” which makes it easier for the reader to understand whatever the reading will entail. Active verbs may be used. Dor (2003) contends that the titles are brief and accurate, providing a personal level of understanding among the readers on what the newspaper will entail.
Level of Government Control in the 1600s
Since numerous publications were under the government regulation, most of them did not report on local events or news. There was a civil war which broke out in 1641, England where Oliver Cromwell, as well as the Parliament, had made several threats to have King Charles 1 overthrown. For the significant events, the citizens were turning towards the local papers to cover the main events. There was a weekly paper that had a title regarding “heads of proceedings in the Parliament” which started to focus on the local news. The paper was fueled by a discussion concerning the freedom to which the press was entitled that was articulated later by John Milton in 1644 (Love, 2018).
Milton was criticizing the strict regulations that were on the content being included in the newspapers. Milton made significant emphasis on the Bible scriptures, but it had a major impact on the printing regulations. In England, the newspapers were freed from the control of the government and people started to understand the power behind the free press (Love, 2018).
Newspapers took advantage of the newfound rights and started publishing much more frequently. With the publications made biweekly, papers had more space to market reports and ran advertisements. The journalists’ roles changed from being simple observers to being active players within commerce as the investors and business owners relied on the papers in marketing their products and also help them in predicting their business developments (Tucker & Unwin, 2018). When the publishers noticed the popularity that was growing as well as the profit, they later founded the daily publications. It was in 1650 that the publisher from German started printing what was to be the world’s oldest daily newspaper that ever survived known as the “Eikommende Zeitung” whereas the English publisher later followed suit in the year 1702. The publications turned the newspapers into crucial fixtures in the daily lives of the citizens (Tucker & Unwin, 2018).
Following the Charles 2 restoration to his throne in 1660, the control that the authorities had over the press reasserted. The 1662 Printing Act had specified that every publication is required to be licensed before being printed. Oxford Gazette was established as the news book of the government in the year 1665 which got succeeded by the Gazette in the year 1666. The format which was a single sheet that was printed each on both sides earned the paper a description which was the First English newspaper. Though the Act regarding printing couldn’t be enforced strictly, it acted as a significant deterrent towards the new titles publication. During its lapse, several unlicensed newspapers appeared. It lapsed for a second time in 1695, and there were new titles that increased in numbers as well as several ling-lasting and successful newspapers which were developed.
Government Control Today
In the current world, there control of the government over the newspapers has not changed but directly evolved. An example is in Africa and China. The African governments have been a significant revenue source for organizations of news. For instance, in Rwanda, there is a staggering 90% of the revenue obtained from advertising (Zavattaro & Sementelli, 2014). In Kenya 2013, the government was said to have spent about Ksh 40 million in a span of 2 weeks only for the publication of congratulatory messages for the newly elected president Kenyatta (Zavattaro & Sementelli, 2014).
Just like the 17th century, the current day news is being influenced by the government in different ways. Starving the news media of their revenue is a means used as an indirect control by the government. It is a practice witnessed in other countries including Hungary, Serbia, Swaziland, and Lesotho (Zavattaro & Sementelli, 2014). Ethiopia newspaper has experienced government control of some sort. The ISP Ethio-Telecom that is owned by the state has installed a particular system which blocks people’s access to Tor Network that allows the users to browse and also access the blocked websites anonymously (Zavattaro & Sementelli, 2014).
There is also a danger that printers are likely to censor the content within the Ethiopian newspaper. The Reporters Without Borders organization has recently accused the largest printer in the country, Berhanena Selam of striving to impose some political censorship on the content of their media before any publication (Zavattaro & Sementelli, 2014). Governments today despite the freedom of press Acts, have found new means to control whatever is being printed in the newspapers.
In China, on the other hand, the constitution affords the citizen the freedom of press and speech but the media regulations enacted allows for authorizes to crack down new stories through claiming that they are exposing the state secrets and also endanger the nation (Zavattaro & Sementelli, 2014). There is a vague definition of state secrets that exists in China facilitating the censorship of information which the authorities may deem harmful towards their economic and political interests.
Despite the parliamentary Acts that allows for the freedom of speech, which is an improvement since the 1600s, governments have always found ways to control the kind of information being conveyed through the newspapers. In Hungary, the Media Authority is entitled to the power to collect data that is detailed concerning the journalists and the editorial in addition to adverting content (Zavattaro & Sementelli, 2014). The Prime Minister utilizes the taxes, licensing and fees to put pressure on the critical media including newspapers and is steering the advertising by the state to some friendly outlets. According to several worldwide press freedom institutions, the independent press of Hungary today is facing creeping strangulation from the authorities (Zavattaro & Sementelli, 2014).
In Russia, the current president remarks the landscape of the media in the image that the government wishes. In 2014, there were multiple blockages of media which saw the change in their editorial line responding to the pressures of the government. There was approved legislation that was carried out during the launch of media operations in the country which limited the foreign investments channeled towards the Russian media including the newspaper (Zavattaro & Sementelli, 2014). The measure aimed at the publications where a daily newspaper that was respected for its independence and standards owned by various foreign groups of media including Sanoma from Finland, and Dow Jones (Zavattaro & Sementelli, 2014).
Main Topics being Discussed.
In the town center public library, there are numerous British Newspaper Archies which duplicates their online access. The articles can be viewed through the computers within the public libraries. The library contains hundreds of newspapers and periodical that were from the 17th century and comprised of tons of facsimile images and pages. The main topics that were covered included art, drama, music, architecture as well as archeology (Hughes, 2018).
In American Newspapers, legal and moral aspects were featured in the papers where the legal issues involving dispossessing Indians made a robust case for the Indians, but they may be inclined more on applying the modern standards (Hughes, 2018). There were also pronouncements by the state and church which seem to have held a notion that the non-Christians did not have a right to own properties including their bodies (Hughes, 2018).
The newspapers in the 17th century America included topics that featured the friction existing between the white settlers and Indians; there was a significant conscious borrowing that was from each other. The industrious and painstaking efforts in searching the social strati where most of the early American settlers came is currently being appreciated by the historical scholars as they peruse through the newspapers from the 1600s (Williams, 2009).
American newspapers in the 17th century also included topics on the aristocracy from Virginia as well as the provincial and local government control which was well indicated. According to Williams (2009), the writers focused on the discussion of regarding the local government towards the vestrymen than towards the justices in the county. They concluded that the Virginia situation at that period that was of a Glorious Revolution in the England economy, as well as the disturbances within the colonies, contained more points regarding the situational similarities.
Main topics today unlike those in the 1600s which focused on issues of existing friction between different races, in the modern world newspapers, the main items included are the world news which feature the current events on various aspects such as politics, business and finance, sports, economics, innovation, multimedia, culture, science and technology, blogs, etc. The newspapers today feature a vast number of topics that most people in the country would find relevant to their daily lives.
Regarding politics, the current day papers look into the various parliamentary rulings and proceedings in addition to numerous government operations that are lately being carried out. Similarly to the 1600s, actions taken by politicians are discussed in the daily newspapers today. For instance, in China, a printed publication by “The Economist” reflects the manner in which Xi Jinping has been tightening his grip on his power in the economy of China and how he promotes the allies to the top government occupations. Diplomatic efforts and tensions within different governments are also included in the coverage.
With regards to business and finance, the newspapers cover the various operations that relate to money flow especially in large financial institutions such as the banks. New information on tariffs, government taxation, working conditions among citizens and revenues generated by large companies are also included, but they were not discussed during the 1600s. Advertisements on some of the firms are also done through the newspapers today.
Regarding Science and Technology, newspapers today provide information on the several operations being carried out by scientists such as experiments, competitions, research and their financial issues which were not prioritized in the 17th century. Inventions such as the self-driving vehicles, geographical aspects such as the lunar eclipse and advancements in drug replication and production are all discussed in the daily newspapers.
Technological Differences and Improvement made in Newspapering
Technology in the Past
In 1626, there was an invention of the very first facsimile which included a copy of the Mearyrologiuma Hieronymianum that was engraved on several copper plates. The facsimile can be termed as the reproduction of old manuscript, old book, art print, map or even other items which can be considered true to the source (Hughes, 2018).
It was not until 1620 that Amsterdam cartographer, printer and publisher Willem Bleau improved the printing press through the addition of counterweight that is towards the pressure bar for the platen to rise automatically (Hughes, 2018).
Technological Advancement in Newspaper Production Today
The printing media in the current world are portraying some of the fundamental changes which are being carried out regarding the new publications as well as the new development forms that are affecting the business of printed news. The written media today has been dramatically altered, and that has been increasingly pronounced when the desktop publishing was introduced along with the virtual media. Every major newspaper in the current world comprise of websites, and they are being modified continuously to provide better comfort for the readers. Today, there is a possibility for the readers to interact with the journalists directly and also provide them with their feedback.
Digital technology today has influenced the newspaper industry significantly regarding unprecedented crisis which combines the digital technology diffusion with the cyclical turbulence which may be stealing revenues and readers away at an accelerating and alarming rate where editors and publishers everywhere have adopted the environment and are ready to implement the changes.
In the current day newspapering, the digital news can be read through different devices such as the tablet applications. Websites today provide the latest news and readers can obtain information through merely accessing the internet services unlike during the 1600s where there was only paper news available. Newspapers are also adapting the cellular phones as they continue to rapidly change the manner in which the audiences are perceiving the news.
Researchers have predicted the benefits of blogs and how they would contribute significantly towards the success of online newspapers. Blogs can provide a vast size of audiences an interaction which was not initially available during the 17th century. Consumers today can feel much more connected, and that has resulted in them coming back as they take part in the intellectual conversations. During the 16th century, the users and consumers could not carry out discussions such as those involving political issues as there weren’t any available platform to do so. With the editors of the blogs editing and monitoring various conversations regarding a news topic which is of interest to them, the websites which are news-related can assist on increasing the numbers of audiences and improve the delivered information. That was not possible when the newspapers were initially being published in the 1600s. Their possibility of expanding the audiences was not as high as it is today.
The efficiency of Information Distribution in Modern World compared to the 1600s
In the 17th century, pamphlets were some of the materials that were mostly printed, and they are widely used in France, England, and Germany. In France, there were numerous pamphlets which were being issued supporting the reformed religion such that the prohibiting edicts got promulgated. The regular news dissemination was mostly reliant on the postal service infrastructure that was created within the German Empire, England, and France (Cutlip, 2013). The transport system was expensive, and the operators reduced the time for travel significantly through the use of relay couriers, horse exchanges, and permanent stations. There postal routes developed in Eastern Europe (Cutlip, 2013).
In the current world, newspaper distribution has been made significantly more efficient, and they are reaching more customers every day. There are several distribution divisions while the large newspapers can publish several editions in a single day all having a particular schedule. People today can subscribe to newspapers and receive daily deliveries(Clark-Johnson, 2008). They are provided with the timeframe when it is to plop onto their driveways and the hours. Advertising rates have also increased substantially due to the rate of distribution. Newspapers are also provided in websites as well as social platforms found online such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc (Clark-Johnson, 2008). With the digital revolution, people today can access news at a higher rate than during the 17th century. Paperless communication available online has reduced the resources being used in paper manufacturing hence bringing about new challenges to the industry (Clark-Johnson, 2008).
In closing, newspapers have evolved from the 1600s to the current day. With the technological advancements, vast numbers of individuals can access the latest information compared to the 17th century. The literature above is a comparison between the newspapers during the 1600s and the modern days including several differentiating aspects such as publishing, the language used during the two eras, nature of the headlines, the level of government control, the main topics included, and the technological differences that existed between the two different periods. Also, the paper has looked into the efficiency of distribution in both the 17th and 21st century.
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Cutlip, S. M. (2013). Public relations history: From the 17th to the 20th century: The antecedents. Routledge
Dor, D. (2003). On newspaper headlines as relevance optimizers. Journal of Pragmatics, 35(5), 695-721
Hughes, T. (2018). Collectible 1600s & 1700s Newspapers. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from http://www.rarenewspapers.com/entry/the_1600s_1700s
Love, H. (2018). The culture and commerce of texts: scribal publication in seventeenth-century England. Univ of Massachusetts Press.
Taiwo, R. (2007). Language, Ideology and Power Relations in Newspaper Headlines. Nebula, 4(1)
Tucker, D. H., & Unwin, G. (2018, March 08). History of publishing. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/publishing/Newspaper-publishing
Williams, K. (2009). Read all about it!: a history of the British newspaper. Routledge.
Zavattaro, S. M., & Sementelli, A. J. (2014). A critical examination of social media adoption in government: Introducing omnipresence. Government Information Quarterly, 31(2), 257-264
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