What is the missing text in the following statement?

‘A system operating…cannot convert all the heat absorbed from a reservoir into the same amount of work.’

### Question 4

The heat required to change the phase of unit mass of material is called the ______ ____.

### Question 7

The handle of an iron rod 50 cm long placed in a hot fire gets uncomfortably hot after 1 minute. What length of iron rod could be comfortably held by its handle for 5 minutes after the end of the rod was placed in the fire?

### Question 8

The increase in solar energy received by the Earth if the temperature of the outer surface of the Sun, 5800 K, increased by 2% would be approximately:

### Question 9

A planet with no atmosphere, which has a radius a third that of Earth, is orbiting a star identical in emission to our Sun at a radius half that of the Earth’s. If the albedo of the planet is 0.825, what temperature is its surface?

### Question 10

Estimate the work done by a compressor in raising the pressure of 100 kg of water from 1 to 200 atmospheres.

### Question 11

The height of the potential barrier that two interacting molecules have to overcome is called the __________ _______.

### Question 13

Which of the following statements are true about the steady flow of a fluid in a stream-tube?

Please select all that apply.

### Question 14

For steady flow of a perfect fluid through a constriction in a horizontal tube, which of the following statements are true?

Please select all that apply.

### Question 15

A fluid of density *ρ* and coefficient of dynamic viscosity *μ* moves with velocity *U* in between two parallel surfaces separated by a gap *d*. The viscous shear force per unit area on each surface is given by:

### Question 17

The typical order of magnitude of the Reynolds’ No. for a fluid to switch from laminar flow to turbulent flow is:

### Question 18

The flow of water over a small model wing and the flow of air over a full scale wing have the same Reynolds’ No. Is it true that the flow regime is the same in both cases?

### Question 19

The lift force on an aerofoil with a lift coefficient C_{L} in a fluid with density ρ moving with velocity U is given by:

### Question 20

Euler’s equation provides a formula for the power output from a turbine. Does the fact that the derivation takes no account of the details of the flow inside the turbine (where the blades do work on the fluid) invalidate the formula?

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